why did the allies find it easier to fight hitlers forces after the1945 crossing of the rhine.?
kye superman17
2008-01-28 20:46:58 UTC
why did the allies find it easier to fight hitlers forces after the1945 crossing of the rhine.?
22 answers:
2008-01-28 23:44:48 UTC
They were in the "heartland" of Germany. The Soviets had the Germans pinned on the Eastern Front. The Americans, Brits and Poles (among others) were pushing up through the Alps and into the southern German regions. There was no-where for the Nazi army to go.

We had broken out of the hedgerows which had bogged down most of the American heavy infantry (tanks) in France and the "low countries".

Nazi Germany was starving, lacking medicine and morale was in the toilet.

Hilter's well-trained, battle hardened forces were either dead, or captured. They were left to fight on with young men (some 11-12 years old in the Battle of Berlin), untrained, unprepared for the harshness and brutality of war.
2016-03-19 01:54:08 UTC
Easy my eye! Well I think you'd start off with a feather headed gorilla who lays eggs, and has the impulse to keep crossing and re crossing a road, to get to the other side. And then after getting to each side, he'd also have the impulse to root in the mud at the side of the road and would sprint back to his original point, on the opposite side of the road. And if anyone tries to stop him, he gives them a hefty jolt with the horns on his head that are shared with the chicken feathers. Now couldn't you just picture a horn topped gorilla, with a head full of feathers besides? And sprinting back and forth like a hamster in its' cage. Only to stop and take time to root and roll in the mud if there is any, before returning back to the other side of the road again? Talk about hyper active! Seudi Ni, you have much too much time on your hands. Now I'm curious what is or is not keeping you busy the rest of the time you're not thinking these gems up?
2008-01-28 20:55:52 UTC
All Hitler's experienced forces were pretty much dead. Hitler's newbie (but not stupid) forces were spending a lot of time trying to pick which ally to get captured by. Germany was thoroughly cut off from any kind of raw material. Germany was subjected to daily bombing of anything that might produce a bullet or two.

It all adds up.
2016-02-14 16:45:16 UTC
A lot of interested traders are asking themselves the question if you can really make money with binary options? The answer is that you can indeed make money in binary options trading. Learn here

Obviously this is a perfectly legitimate question considering that most people have not traded binary options in the past and generally believe that investing is a very difficult activity.

However, you will have to put an effort into it. You will have to learn money management, reading of charts as well as the usage of indicators.
2008-01-28 20:51:12 UTC
First off, we had entered Germany and the Nazis knew it was only a matter of time, morale among the Germans plummeted; and secondly the Soviets were pushing in from the east, tightening the noose.
2016-04-16 22:35:03 UTC
Preset the timer in your TV to turn off after 1 hour to remind you to make a move more active.
2008-01-28 20:54:18 UTC
By the time Americans got there, the Germans were done. They knew it was just a matter of time before they lost. Americans just got in time to get the credit for something the Russians fought so hard for.
2017-03-11 06:20:59 UTC
Give your dog a bath rather than paying someone else to get it done.
2017-03-06 06:49:30 UTC
Stand up each time you talk about the phone.
2016-06-22 04:35:58 UTC
Slide a small trampoline under your couch and also pull it out for House of Cards marathons.
Handsome is as handsome does
2008-01-28 20:50:51 UTC
Because US forces were really just a clean-up crew. Russia had the war wrapped up before the US arrived, that's why it was easier.
2015-01-25 05:41:23 UTC
The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) defines premature ejaculation as a persistent or recurrent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and before a person wishes. Wow, that’s not a sexy definition. Personally, I define it as you come quicker than you or your partner wants. Luckly this is a great solution for premature ejaculation
2008-01-28 20:49:22 UTC
They were out of hedgerow country, for one. Two, they were fighting a retreating force instead of an entrenched one on a fixed defensive line.
2016-02-24 20:19:10 UTC
Preset the timer in your TV to turn off after one hour to remind you to do something more active.
2016-07-15 08:01:49 UTC
Volunteer to deliver meals or help build housing.
2016-01-22 14:21:51 UTC
Instead of sitting and examining, listen to books on tape as you walk, clean, or garden.
2016-12-25 02:41:14 UTC
Wash your car as opposed to taking it through the auto wash.
2016-02-25 15:34:46 UTC
Volunteer to produce meals or help build property.
2016-05-03 06:13:54 UTC
Walk across the block once mid-morning and once midafternoon.
2016-12-25 23:43:11 UTC
Put way up more Christmas lights.
2016-02-14 16:53:48 UTC
Help your kids clean up their rooms.
2008-01-28 20:51:17 UTC
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#728 From: "Brian Mitchell"

Date: Fri Feb 3, 2006 3:53 pm

Subject: Chapters 42 - 44. 1917 AND ALL THAT: THE UNTAUGHT HISTORY SYLLABUS. In Their Own Words: A Political History Of The Cold War 1917-1983 evolutionnow...

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In Their Own Words: A Political History Of The Cold War 1917-1983.

By Brian Mitchell.

Chapters 42 - 44 of 50.

Chapter 42


"I remember, how during the war - I was only a child then - the Germans came to

our house in Donetsk. And they beat my father... they beat him with a rod... But

we do not want to be beaten. No, we refuse to be beaten! One feature of the

history of old Russia was the continual beatings she suffered because of her

backwardness... She was beaten by the British and French capitalists... All beat

her because of her backwardness, military backwardness, political backwardness,

agricultural backwardness, they beat her because to do so was profitable and

could be done with impunity."

(Soviet worker from the Donetsk coal mining region quoting Russian history.) (1)

(1)See:John Summers "The Red and the Black." Progress Publishers. Moscow 1979.

"On 21st June... At about 4 am the bombs came down on the town and in another

half hour we were engaged in furious combat with a German airborne landing on

the outskirts of our town. None of us knew at the time, nor could we know, that

1,418 days and nights would have to pass before we wreaked vengeance on the

fascist sadists for the havoc they caused our peaceful nation, for the tears of

our mothers and children."

(Sergei Gvazov, Kiev.) (2)

(2)See:Carey Schofield (Ed) "Russia at War 1941-45." Stanley Paul. London 1987.

"Never again will capital invade our country in any shape or form."


Tricked, betrayed, attacked and constantly threatened by the capitalist world

for daring to overthrow the capitalist system and taking the means of production

and political power into their own hands; can the Soviet people be blamed for

saying: "NIET!" - that never again will foreign aggressors intrude upon Soviet

soil or will Soviet mothers cry for lost sons? - That "never again will capital

invade our country in any shape or form."?

The Soviet Union emerged from the war with tremendous influence and

international prestige. The Soviet people's victory over Nazi Germany had shown

the world the economic, political, ideological, industrial and military

superiority of united socialist society:

"A nation in which the majority of workers and peasants realise that they are

fighting for their own Soviet power, for the rule of the working people - such a

nation can never be vanquished."


When Hitler attacked the USSR in 1941 the very existence of Britain and the rest

of the world, including the US, depended on the Soviet Union's ability to


"The American people should remember that they were on the brink of disaster in

1942. If the Soviet Union had failed to hold on its front, the Germans would

have been in a position to conquer Great Britain. They would have been able to

overrun Africa, too, and in this event they could have established a foothold in

Latin America. The impending danger was constantly in President Roosevelt's


(US Secretary of State, Stettinius.) (3)

(3) E.R.Stettinius "Roosevelt and the Russians." Jonathan Cape. London 1950.

"I find it difficult this spring and summer to get away from the fact that the

Russian armies are killing more Axis personnel and destroying more Axis material

than all the other twenty-five united nations put together."

(US President Roosevelt, May 1942, in New York Times Oct 20 1955.) (1)

(1) See:Michael Howard "Grand Strategy." Vol IV. Aug 1942-Sept 1943. HMSO.

London 1972.

Hollywood and the history books play down, or more usually completely ignore the

decisive role of the Soviet Union in the Second World War.

In July 1941, 196 German divisions were fighting on the Soviet front, while only

eight were fighting on all other fronts. Germany lost 13.6 million troops in

World War Two - 10 million of these in the war with the Soviet Union. Most of

the war was fought by the Soviet people; not by John Wayne or Frank Sinatra.

Many irresponsible Western sources attempt to discredit Soviet production by

playing up the importance of wartime Lend Lease supplies as "saving" the Soviet

Union's neck. Nothing could be more hatefully untrue.

"To the end of the war the Russians managed to supply the great bulk of the

fighting tools: 92.5 per cent of the planes used; 91.5 per cent of the tanks,

98.5 per cent of the artillery; 95.5 per cent of the shells, 94.5 per cent of

the cartridges and 100 per cent of the rifles."

(British historian D.F.Fleming.) (2)

(2) D.F. Fleming "The Cold War and its Origins." Doubleday. London 1961.

See also:R.Palme Dutt "Problems of Contemporary History." Lawrence and Wishart.

London 1963..

Lend Lease supplies accounted for less than 5 percent of the USSR's war

production needs; such as 12 percent of its aircraft, 10 percent of its tanks

and armour, and less than 3 percent of its ordinance and other supplies. Even

so, Soviet soldiers were grateful for Lend Lease supplies, even the tins of

"Second Front" corned beef. And Lend Lease was no "gift" to the Soviet people.

British and US companies profited from it. The Soviet people paid in ships

returned loaded with valuable raw materials for the Western allies.

#The people of the USSR paid a heavy price for the destruction of German

fascism. Two in every five people killed in World War Two were Soviet citizens.

The material damage amounted to 485,000,000,000 dollars. Suffering such losses,

the Soviet Union not only freed itself, but 113,000,000 other Europeans from

Fascism. Such is the debt owed to the Soviet people that Western war films,

history books, children's war magazines and comics, and other propaganda

irresponsibly and callously ignore.

On December 18 1940 Hitler signed Directive 21: his "Plan Barbarossa".

Unlike elsewhere in Europe, and following his intentions as stated in his

"Barbarossa" plan, Hitler's policy in the USSR was to destroy everything,

especially industry.

Western propagandists try to say that the Red Army did not demobilise after the

war. But this is a lie. For one thing, the manpower was needed for the vast

reconstruction of the Soviet Union; so much had been destroyed. The Soviet

people after the war were back almost to the position they were in just after

the revolution. They had nothing; no farms, no homes, no industry, nothing;

nothing.but devastation everywhere:

"The immediate object of my journey was to estimate the damage caused by war and

examine the Soviet steps towards reconstruction. My ultimate object to gain an

impression of the kind of human beings that the past two and a half decades had

produced in the Soviet Union...

My diary, written minute by minute during seven hours' low level flight, reads

with monotonous regularity: 'trenches, more trenches, tank trenches, shell

holes, broken bridge, smashed cottages, destroyed village'. - Seventy thousand

villages were destroyed; 1,135 coal pits; 3,000 oil wells; 61 large power

stations; 27 iron and steel works; 749 engineering plants; 66 chemical

factories; 40,000 miles of railway track; 15,800 locomotives; 428,000 wagons;

4,100 railway stations; 1,400 ships; 137,000 tractors; 4,000,000 ploughs; 49,000

combine harvesters; 1,500,000 homes; 9,000,000 head of cattle; 12,000,000 pigs;

13,000,000 sheep and goats..."

(Dean of Canterbury Rev. Hewlett Johnson, in his autobiography "Searching for


The figures available at the time of Hewlett Johnson's visit just after the war

were estimates made at the end of the war. More detailed statistics were

revealed later after a more thorough investigation was made.

All this was Hitler's policy of trying to make sure that the material economic

base of socialism would be destroyed for ever and could not be rebuilt.

All this had to be replaced before any advances could be made in the Soviet

economy and the Soviet people's standard of living. And it had to be done with

20 million pairs of hands less than they had before the war. There were also 17

million war widows and millions of orphans to be taken care of. Throughout the

USSR after the war, in some villages not one man returned from the fighting, and

it was the Soviet women who rose from trenches or holes in the ground under the

the rubble.

The Soviets, as always, had only the power of their labour with which to rebuild

their economy and to rebuild their destroyed cities and industries. And all they

required from the West in order to do this was peace.

The West, on the other hand, had all kinds of help; such as Marshall Aid. And

more importantly: nobody was threatening them. The West even naively thought of

calling upon God to provide the world with peace. But the Soviets were under no

such illusions:

"Molotov told us the following story of his (Stalin's) recent meeting with


"Says Churchill - 'We must have the Pope on our side, he would be a valuable


"Says Stalin - 'How many divisions does he command?'"

(Daily Herald April 5 1945.) (1)

However, in spite of the West's predictions, by 1948 Soviet production was

already back to its pre-war level. By 1950 it was 48 percent above this level,

and agricultural production was 27 percent higher than 1940, and food rationing

had stopped long before it had stopped in Britain.

The West had learned nothing about the Soviet people during the war:

"We didn't anticipate the revolution; when it occurred, we didn't think it would

succeed; when it was successful, we thought socialism was going to be abandoned;

when it wasn't, we thought we wouldn't have to recognise the new Soviet State;

when we did, we acted first as if it was like the Western democracies and then

if it was like the Nazis; when the Germans invaded, we thought the Russians

could only last 6 weeks; when they survived the war, we thought they couldn't

recover quickly from it; when they recovered quickly, we thought they didn't

have the know-how to build missiles and so on..."

(Fred Warner Neal "US Foreign Policy and the Soviet Union." The Centre For the

Study of Democratic Institutions. Sta. Barbara, Calif.)

(1)See:W.P. and Zelda K. Coates "A History of Anglo-Soviet Relations." Vol.II.

Lawrence and Wishart. London 1948.

Western politicians were eager to spread the word of Hitler's General

Stulpnagel, who, after retreating from the Dnieper area, reported to Hitler


"The Russians will need a period of 25 years to rebuild what has been


(General Stulpnagel.)

"At the end of my tour, we called at the British Embassy. One of the secretaries

asked me my impressions. I said, "They have suffered terribly but they are

rebuilding. I am convinced they will surprise us by their achievements in peace,

as they did in war." He gave me a pitying look. He said, "You've been led astray

by the Communists. The truth is the Russians are making a terrible mistake. The

people desperately want consumer goods, but they are being sacrificed to capital


(British journalist and Lenin Peace Prize winner Gordon Schaffer.)

A "terrible mistake"? What an imbecile understanding of simple economics. How

can one have consumer goods without the industry to produce them? Where do

British government officials think the Soviets were to get these goods? Was

perhaps Britain to supply them in exchange for cheap raw materials as with the

colonies? In the West, expensive luxury consumer goods are produced for a

limited number of people who can afford them by capitalists for private profit.

Millions of people, the overwhelming majority of people in the capitalist world

live in poverty, haven't a home or enough to eat, let alone consumer goods. In a

socialist society those needs are satisfied first. To produce those necessities,

and then consumer goods for everybody, only a planned economy can facilitate.

Commodities must be produced for export in exchange for what primary industry

the country does not have. First, heavy industry must be abundant; together with

extraction of raw materials. Then light industry can follow, which can produce

consumer goods in abundance for all.

There might not yet be the sophistication in many Soviet consumer goods as there

is in the West, but a look round a Moscow department store will reveal a range

of goods equal to any large London store. The Soviets want very little that we

have got. And before long they will be producing what they don't have for


Post-war reconstruction in the Soviet Union and in the existing and newly

emerged socialist countries was carried out at a rapid pace and without any

capital aid. It consumed vast capital expenditure and kept the supply of

consumer goods down low compared with middle class British standards. No

capitalist economy could have survived such capital losses and recovered without

nationalising everything. But living standards soon rose, and in some cases have

now surpassed the living standards and quality of life of the average British

worker. British Tory MP Edward Heath, in attacking the Labour Government in the

late 1970s remarked that the average worker in the GDR has a higher standard of

living than the average British worker.

A British Parliamentary Delegation left London for the USSR in January 1945.

They made reports on what they saw in News Letters:

"...Russian hosts who spared no pains to show us everything we wanted to see.

The theory that 'the Russians only show you what they want you to see' was

completely exploded."

(Commander King-Hall MP, British Parliamentary Delegation to the USSR, in

January 1945, in "News Letter" March 15 1945.) (1)

(1)See:W.P. and Zelda K. Coates "A History of Anglo-Soviet Relations." Vol.II.

Lawrence and Wishart. London 1948.

"I have no doubt at all that it is the purpose of the Russian regime

substantially to raise the standard of life of the Russian people. In the past,

the hostility of the 'capitalists' had obliged the Russians to save themselves

by themselves. By incredible sacrifices, inflexible determination and ruthless

concentration on the objective, considerable progress was made. The German

invasion set them back ten years. Much must be done all over again. The Russians

intend to do it... and they know that, in order to do it, two conditions must be


(a) Security from attack from without.

(b) A disciplined, hard working, enthusiastic people within Russia's borders."

(Commander King-Hall MP, British Parliamentary Delegation to the USSR, in

January 1945, in "News Letter" March 29 1945.) (1)

"..."Tell the truth about our country. We have many things that are good and

many that are not. Tell the truth about both." This was Stalin's frank reply

when asked by members of the British Parliamentary Delegation what were his

suggestions for improving relations between the USSR and Great Britain."

(Mr.John Parker MP, British Parliamentary Delegation to the USSR in January

1945, in Daily Herald March 22 1945.)

"Youth, with a capital Y, rules the Soviet Union today. We found young men in

responsible positions in all spheres of life, whether in industry, Government

administration, the services or education...

Only a planned economy in the Soviet Union would have enabled that country to

have stood up so well to the Nazi onslaught. Time and again one was struck by

examples of the way in which a socialist community would be able to move more

rapidly in the field of reconstruction after the war than would a Tory-run

Capitalist community in Britain.

When the State owns all the land and runs the building industry, it is possible

to plan fine new cities without any opposition from any vested interest."

(Mr.John Parker MP, British Parliamentary Delegation to the USSR in January

1945, in Daily Herald April 2 1945.)

The West had millions of dollars of Marshall Aid to implement a much smaller

amount of reconstruction. Not only did the Soviet Union not get a penny of

Marshall Aid, but they were cheated out of war reparations at Potsdam:

It was a provision of the Yalta agreement that:

"Germany must pay in kind for the losses caused by her to the Allied nations in

the course of the war.

Reparations are to be received in the first instance by those countries which

have borne the main burden of the war, have suffered the heaviest losses and

have organised victory over the enemy."

(From the Crimea (Yalta) Conference Protocol, signed by the USSR, the US and

Britain, Feb 11 1945.)

It is undoubted that the Soviet Union bore the main burden or war and suffered

the heaviest losses and organised the main victory over the enemy. But the

Soviets were by no means compensated accordingly.

(1)See:W.P. and Zelda K. Coates "A History of Anglo-Soviet Relations." Vol.II.

Lawrence and Wishart. London 1948.

At Potsdam, Stalin suggested withdrawal of percentages in war reparations:

Stalin:"Then there is the percentage of withdrawal. Here again agreement can be

reached. One per cent either way does not make much difference. I hope that in

this matter of establishing the withdrawal percentage, the British and the

Americans will meet us half way. We have lost a terrible amount of

equipment in this war, a terrible quantity of it. At least one-twentieth part of

it should be restored. And I expect Mr. Attlee to support our proposal."

Attlee:"No, I cannot do that,"

Stalin:"Think a little and support us."

Attlee:"I thought of this all day yesterday."

Stalin:"What have we got then? I think we must try to reach a general agreement

on this question."

(From the transcripts of the Potsdam Conference.) (1)

Eventually the Soviets dropped their claims for percentages and accepted nominal

figures. The Soviet's share of other reparations, such as shares of industrial

enterprises, and German gold - after the return of what Germany had plundered

from other countries, and German investments and enterprises abroad, including

those in the US, was either lowered or blocked altogether. At Potsdam Bevin


Bevin:"I should like to ask the Generalissimo [Marshal Stalin B.M.] whether he

is prepared to waive all claims to German assets abroad outside the zone of

Russian occupation troops?"

Stalin:"Yes I am."

Byrnes:"What about the gold?"

Stalin:"We have already withdrawn our claims to the gold."

Byrnes:"There are German assets in other countries. How is the Soviet proposal

to be understood in this context?"

Stalin:"We keep only what is in the Eastern zone."

(From the transcripts of the Potsdam Conference.) (2)

At both Yalta and Potsdam it was agreed that nations should be compensated

according to losses. Nobody can now doubt that the Soviets lost the most; yet

was compensated most unfairly.

Later, on August 1 1945, the US and Britain proposed that in exchange for an

agreed percentage of capital equipment, the Soviet Union should waive its claims

to German assets abroad, gold, and its shares from German enterprises in the

Western zones of occupation. The Soviet Union later waived many other claims to

which it was entitled.

Also not only did the Soviet Union have to settle Poland's claims from its own

share of reparations, but it had to supply the Western zones with the equivalent

value in food and coal and other commodities in exchange for 15 percent of

usable industrial capital equipment.

(1)See:"The Teheran Yalta and Potsdam Conferences. Documents." Progress

Publishers. Moscow 1969.

(2)See:"The Teheran Yalta and Potsdam Conferences. Documents." Progress

Publishers. Moscow 1969.

Against such odds, the Soviet people astounded the world and rebuilt their fine

new cities:

"When the Nazis had evacuated the city during their great retreat in 1944, they

had blown up or burned down all schools, academic institutions, theatres,

cinemas, the 101 factories, and both power stations. Eighty percent of the

dwellings were destroyed. Even the tram-lines were torn up and taken away as

scrap. The lovely opera-house, shattered by bombardment, was used as a stable.

The art gallery was looted. Photographs taken in various parts of the city on

the day of liberation (3 July 1944) showed one or two crumbling ruins and all

else a desert of rubble stretching to the horizon.

After showing us round the almost completely rebuilt city, far more handsome and

distinguished than it was before, the Chairman of the City Soviet spoke to us of

the trials which London had suffered during the war. He asked us

if we saw better now why Soviet citizens wanted to live in peace with all

nations; to which we truly answered that we did."

(British historian Andrew Rothstein, visiting Minsk in December 1953 - 10 years

after its destruction; in his book "Peaceful Coexistence.") (1)

"The war continued for a long time; it seemed like all eternity to us, we were

getting low spirited for all of us had relatives at the front.

The postman was eagerly awaited at all the dug-outs; every day he brought

news... one had been awarded an Order, another had been killed.

There was an old map of Europe hanging on the classroom wall, and every day,

after lessons, we moved little red flags to mark the victorious advance of our

Soviet Army.

"Soviet troops have liberated Bucharest!"


"We've entered Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia!"

"Soviet troops are fighting on German soil!"

"They are already in Austria," Xenia Gerasimovna Filippova told us with tears in

her eyes...

"...Germany is cracking up."

We stood for hours at the map and studied geography from the communiques of the

Soviet Information Bureau.

We had no textbooks and many of the boys learned to read from an Infantry

Training Manual left behind by our soldiers at the Village Soviet...

Everybody was eagerly awaiting the end of the war. One day Mother came running

from the Village Soviet; she smelled of freshly-turned earth and just as she

was, she threw her arms round me and kissed me.

"Hitler is finished! Our army has taken Berlin!"

I ran outside and suddenly realised that spring had come...

From that moment a new life began...

The success of the first space flight has stirred the imagination of the entire

younger generation of our country...

Yes, we are doing everything for peace. We are peace-loving people and our whole

life, down to the last drop of blood, down to the last breath, belongs to our

wonderful socialist Motherland."

(First man in space, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, in his autobiography "Road

to the Stars.")

(1)Andrew Rothstein "Peaceful Coexistence." Penguin. London 1955.

Chapter 43


The post-war plans of the Soviet people to treble their industrial output in

fifteen years was laughed at, ridiculed and described as "utopian" and

"impossible" by the West. But without a single dollar of the Marshall Aid

received by the West European allies, West Germany and Japan, and despite a

vicious arms race led by the West, these plans were achieved not in fifteen, but

ten years - by 1955. This was as astonishing rate of development as the building

of socialist industry in the USSR in the time between the revolution and the

Second World War.No other country in history has had such a rapid rates of

high-level development.

It is this example to the world that frightens the world's capitalist rulers.

This is what they mean by the Soviet "threat".

The Soviet people just want to build a socialist future for themselves and for

their children.

But does the West intend to allow them to do this in peace? To listen to

Churchill's fine praises for public consumption one might have thought so:

"I salute Marshal Stalin, the great champion, and I firmly believe that our

twenty years' treaty with Russia will prove to be one of the most lasting and

durable factors in preserving the peace and good order and the progress of


(Winston Churchill, House of Parliament, Aug 2 1944.)

"Marshal Stalin and the Soviet leaders wish to live in honourable friendship and

equality with the Western democracies. I feel also that their word is their

bond. I know of no government which stands to its obligations even in its own

spite more solidly than the Soviet Government."

(Winston Churchill, House of Commons, Feb 27 1945.)

"Prime Minister to Marshal Stalin, to the Red Army, and to the Russian people.

From the British nation I send you heartfelt greetings on the splendid victories

you have won in driving the invader from your soil and laying the Nazi tyrant

low. It is my firm belief that on the friendship and understanding between the

British and Russian peoples depend the future of mankind. Here in our island

home we are thinking today very often about you all, and we send you from the

bottom of our hearts our wishes for your happiness and your well-being, and that

after the sacrifices and sufferings of the Dark Valley through which we have

marched together, we may also in loyal comradeship and sympathy walk in the

sunshine of victorious peace. I have asked my wife to speak these few words of

friendship and admiration for you all."

(Winston Churchill, in a radio broadcast to the Soviet people, delivered by his

wife, May 8 1945.) (1)

"Future generations will acknowledge their debt to the Red Army as unreservedly

as do we who have lived to witness these proud achievements."

(Winston Churchill, May 8 1945.) (2)

Compare these pre-election Churchill's fine words of friendship for the Soviet

Union with his speech at Woodford on November 24 1954, where he spoke of

rearming the Germans again in 1945 to attack the Soviets.

What was behind Churchill's fine words?

(1)See:W.P. and Zelda K. Coates "A History of Anglo-Soviet Relations." Vol.II.

Lawrence and Wishart. London 1948.

(2)See:Michael Sayers and Albert E. Kahn "The Great Conspiracy - Against Soviet

Russia." Boni and Gaer, NY 1946, and Red Star Press. London 1975.

There was so much popular sympathy for the Soviet Union during and after the war

that it had become the major election issue. Both Labour and Tories were vying

with each other to proclaim their undying friendship with the Soviet Union:

"The Labour Party was making an election issue of this country's relations with

Russia, but it was a Conservative Prime Minister who first extended the hand to

Russia... Friendship with Russia should be the basis of our European foreign

policy. Britain should never be separated from Russia again."

(Lord Beaverbrook, Lord Privy Seal, speaking at Bradford, May 26 1945. The Times

May 28 1945.) (1)

"We are friends with Russia. We are going to remain friends with her. Let no one

separate us."

(Winston Churchill, speaking at Woodford, May 26 1945, before the General

Election, Observer May 27 1945.) (2)

Note that this is before the General Election! Let's see what he says after the


But what were the Western "allies" of the Soviet Union, dominated and led now by

US capital, really thinking and planning?

Since Hitler had failed to carry out "the destruction of the Soviet Union and

the extermination of its people", defence of the peaceful capitalist world from

the war-like communists had to begin again immediately:

"How do you men feel, the great majority of you soldiers, who have fought the

war and have been here a long time? How do you feel about finishing the job and

fighting the Russians.?"

(US Senator Albert Hawkes, President of the National Association of

Manufacturers, addressing American troops in Rome, 1945.)

"This evening I went carefully through the Planners' report on the possibility

of taking on Russia should trouble arise in our future discussions with her. We

were instructed to carry out this investigation."

?(Field Marshal Sir Allenbrooke, in his diary, May 24 1945.) (3)

"In June and July 1945 our headquarters were twice visited by two Staff Officers

of the British Army of the Rhine who in a confidential talk enquired whether the

troops of the Ems Army Corps were ready to fight the Soviet Union."

(Colonel Meier Welcker, Chief of Staff of the German Ems Army Corps.)

In the American zone of Germany the US army was equipping and rearming thousands

of Polish, Yugoslavian and Ukrainian fascist soldiers and organising them into

Labour Service Companies as "Guards". Many of them had fought with the Nazis

against the Soviets on the Eastern front.

Polish fascists from General Anders' Polish Second Corps who had fought with

Hitler against the Soviet Union were collected together by the US with a view to

overthrowing the post-war Polish Government and invading the Soviet Union:

"In the American zone almost 17,000 displaced Poles are in the service of the

American Army... among Poles now wearing regular United States uniforms... Most

members of these service companies are as anti-semitic and anti-Russian as any


(Raymond Daniell, New York Times, Feb 3 1946.)

(1)See:W.P. and Zelda K. Coates "A History of Anglo-Soviet Relations." Vol.II.

Lawrence and Wishart. London 1948.

(2)See:W.P. and Zelda K. Coates "A History of Anglo-Soviet Relations." Vol.II.

Lawrence and Wishart. London 1948.

?(3)See:Lord Allenbrooke's war diaries: Arthur Bryant "The Turn of the Tide,

1939-43." and "Triumph in the West, 1943-46." London 1959.

Quoted in:V.Trukhanovsky "Winston Churchill." Progress Publishers. Moscow 1978.

"The full story of what the Polish Second Corps is doing in Italy is an ugly

one. Poles are not armed but are trained to precision and are manoeuvred

constantly to be in prime condition to reconquer Poland or invade the Soviet


(Herbert Mathews, New York Times May 4 1946.)

What was that great ally of the Soviet Union Winston Churchill thinking?:

"The United States stood on the scene of victory... but without a true and

coherent design. Britain, though still very powerful, could not act decisively

alone. I could at this stage only warn and plead. Thus this climax of apparently

measureless success was to me a most unhappy time. I moved among cheering

crowds... with an aching heart and a mind oppressed by forebodings."

(Winston Churchill "The Second World War.")

"Even before the war had ended the Germans were surrendering in their hundreds

and thousands and our streets were crowded with cheering people, I telegraphed

Montgomery directing him to be careful in collecting German arms, to stack them

so they could easily be issued to German soldiers, who we should have to work

with if the Soviet advance continued."

(Winston Churchill, speaking at Woodford, Nov 23 1954, in News Chronicle Nov 24

1954, and The Times Nov 24 1954.)

Some Tories tried to deny that Churchill had telegraphed Montgomery with such an

instruction. However:

"In New York last night Lord Montgomery said: 'It is quite true that I received

this telegram from Churchill. I obeyed my orders. As a soldier I always obey


(News Chronicle Nov 24 1954.)

Churchill's consistent aim of destroying the Soviet Union was never far from his

mind even throughout the war.

In August 1941, just two months after Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union,

Churchill and Roosevelt met in Argentia Bay, Newfoundland, Canada, to discuss

their countries' aims in the war. The outcome of this meeting was the Atlantic

Charter. The Atlantic Charter clearly envisaged an Anglo-American post-war

world, as Churchill's cables from Argentia to London reveal:

"The President undoubtedly contemplates the disarmament of the guilty nations,

coupled with the maintenance of strong united British and American armaments

both by sea and air for a long indefinite period."

(Winston Churchill, in a cable to London, Aug 11 1941.) (1)

"Joint Declaration proposing final destruction of Nazi power and disarmament of

aggressive nations while Britain and the United States remain armed is an event

of first magnitude."

(Winston Churchill, in a cable to London, Aug 13 1941.) (2)

No mention of the Soviet Union's role in a post-war world. No mention of the

Soviet Union remaining armed at the end of the war. Who would they disarm?:

(1)Winston Churchill "The Second World War." London 1954.

(2)Winston Churchill "The Second World War." London 1954.

"Not only Germany but possibly also Japan and at least theoretically the Soviet


(US Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles, at the Atlantic Conference,

Argentia, Aug 1941.) (1)

If the aggressive nations were disarmed at the end of the war, why did Britain

and the US need to remain heavily armed "for a long indefinite period"? The only

answer could be for an Anglo-American post-war world.

"A new world order... can only be effective through the leadership of the

British Commonwealth of Nations and the United States of America."

(Canadian Prime Minister McKenzie King, Sept 4 1941.) (2)

During the battle of Stalingrad Churchill said:

"I must admit that my thoughts rest primarily in Europe - the revival of the

glory of Europe, the parent Continent of the modern nations and of civilisation.

It would be a measureless disaster if Russian barbarism overlaid the culture and

independence of the ancient States of Europe."

(Winston Churchill, October 1942, in a secret war Memorandum, disclosed by

Macmillan at the Strasbourg Conference, Sept 4 1949.) (3)

The same sentiments were expressed by another personality six years before:

"If [Bolshevik B.M.] methods succeed... European culture... would be superseded

by the most frightful barbarism of all times."

(Adolf Hitler, Nuremberg, 1936.)

In March 1945, when the war was still being fought, and only two months after

his plea for help from the Red Army when the second front was in trouble on the

Ardennes, Churchill wrote his war strategy:

"Soviet Russia had become a danger to the free world... a new front must be

created against her onward sweep... this front in Europe should be as far East

as possible... Berlin was the prime and true objective of the Anglo-American

armies... The liberation of Czechoslovakia and the entry into Prague of American

troops was of high consequence... Finally, and above all, that a settlement must

be reached on all major issues between the West and the East in Europe before

the armies of democracy melted."

(Winston Churchill, March 1945.) (4)

(1)See:R.Palme Dutt "Problems of Contemporary History." Lawrence and Wishart.

London 1963.

(2)See:Labour Monthly July 1942.

?(3)See:Lord Allenbrooke's war diaries: Arthur Bryant "The Turn of the Tide,

1939-43." and "Triumph in the West, 1943-46." London 1959.

(4)Winston Churchill "The Second World War." Vol. IV

?Lord Allenbrooke said of Winston Churchill:

"He was already seeing himself as capable of eliminating all the Russian centres

of industry and population, without taking into account any of the connected

problems, such as delivery of the bomb, production of bombs, possibility of

Russians also possessing such bombs, etc. He had at once painted a wonderful

picture of himself as the sole possessor of these bombs and capable of dumping

them where he wished, thus all-powerful and capable of dictating to Stalin."

date?(Churchill's Chief of Staff in the war Field Marshal Lord Allenbrooke,

talking about Churchill, in his war diaries.) (1)

In May 1945, the UN Charter, a charter for lasting peace among nations, was

being drafted in San Francisco.

But forces were already at work for a new war of finance capital against the

people of the world:

"It is time the American people became aware of what is really going on in San

Francisco. On the public plane a Charter is being written for a stable peace.

But in private too many members of the American delegation conceive this as a

conference of an anti-Soviet bloc under our leadership. And it is no

exaggeration to say that not a few of them are reckless enough to think and talk

in terms of a third world war - this time against the Soviet Union."

(I.F.Stone, May 6 1945, in Nation, May 12 1945.) (2)

"I told him [Churchill B.M.] frankly that I had been shocked beyond words to

find so violent and bitter attitude, and to find... so violent a change in his

attitude towards the Soviets... It staggered me with the fear that there could

be no peace. I had heard of such attitudes in Britain, but I had discounted

these reports. Recently, a banker in San Francisco had come to tell me that a

British officer, part of the British delegation at the Conference [San Francisco

B.M.], had declared publicly... and with feeling that the British and American

armies should not stop, but go right through and clean up the Red Army and

destroy the Soviet menace now when we were at it."

(Truman's representative, former US Ambassador in Moscow, Joe E. Davies.) (3)

"The New York Daily News editorial today turned to the attack.

Discussing the Prime Minister's Sunday speech, it said. 'This sounds as if

Churchill were contemplating eventual war to cut down Russian power in Europe,

with us to be induced to help England fight Russia in the name of democracy'.

The answer of the New York News was that there was nothing doing unless the

Soviets attacked United States territory.

It is an astonishing phenomenon that this sort of controversy should be going on

only eight days after the surrender of Germany. But it has to be faced."

(Don Iddon, New York, May 16 1945, in Daily Mail May 17 1945.)

?#(1)See:Lord Allenbrooke's war diaries: Arthur Bryant "The Turn of the Tide,

1939-43." and "Triumph in the West, 1943-46." London 1959.

See also:R.Palme Dutt "Problems of Contemporary History." Lawrence and Wishart.

London 1963.

(2)See:W.P. and Zelda K. Coates "A History of Anglo-Soviet Relations." Vol.II.

Lawrence and Wishart. London 1948.

See also:George Seldes "The People Don't Know. The American Press and the Cold

War." Gaer Associates. NY 1949.

(3)Foreign Relations of the United States. The Conference of Berlin, Vol.1.

As usual, British diplomacy wanted others to pull their chestnuts out of the

fire for them.

"I thought the Atlantic Charter was directed against those people who were

trying to establish world dominion. It now looks as if the Atlantic Charter was

directed against the USSR...

Why does the restoration of our frontiers come into conflict with the Atlantic


All we ask for is to restore our country to its former frontiers. We must have

these for our security and safety... I want to emphasise the point that if you

decline to do this, it looks as if you were creating a possibility for the

dismemberment of the Soviet Union."

(Stalin.) (1)

A delegation of 30 British scientists was to have left London for Moscow on June

15 1945. Eight were refused exit visas by the Home Office because "the work on

which they were engaged was too important to be put aside". (2)

Only 3 months after the atom bombs were dropped on Japan, the US was already

planning nuclear war against the Soviet Union:

"We must create a new super State. If the Russians do not agree, an invitation

to their leaders might help if they were to watch a demonstration of atom bombs

dropped on Siberia."

(US Senator Joseph Ball, Nov 10 1945.)

By November 3 1945 the US Joint Chiefs of Staff had received report 329 from the

Joint Intelligence Committee. On December 3 1945 the Joint Intelligence

Committee produced report 329/1 which included the use of British home and

overseas bases. On December 14 1945 the US Joint Staff Planners issued Directive

432/D, which included building and using bases in Britain, Italy, Turkey, India,

China and Japan.

"The only weapon which the United States can employ to obtain decisive effects

in the heart of the USSR is the atomic bomb."

(From secret US Joint War Plans Committee Directive 432/D Dec 14 1945.)

"At the present time the USSR does not have the capability of inflicting similar

damage on the US industry. When the Soviets obtain a strategic air force with

bombers with a range of 5,000 miles and the Atom bomb they will be able to

retaliate and the overwhelming advantage the US now has will be nullified."

(From US Joint War Plans Committee Directive 432/D Point 5. Dec 14 1945.)

"The chart, Annex to Appendix "A" [to Joint Intelligence Committee directive

329/D of Nov 3 1945. B.M.] ...shows 20 key industrial centers of the Soviet

Union and the route of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the Soviets' most important

line of communication... it is estimated that, with 196 atomic bombs (100

percent of the reserve included), the United States, from bases shown, would be

capable of visiting such destruction upon the industrial sources of military

power in the USSR that a decision could eventually be obtained."

(US Joint War Plans Committee Directive 432/D of Dec 14 1945.) (3)

Two atomic bombs for the Japanese; 196 for the Soviets.

Now, all the falsifications of Goebbels' Propaganda Ministry which were used to

frighten the people of Europe with the "horrible Bolshevik threat", "Russian

atrocities", and presented German fascism as the bearer of a "historic mission -

the defenders of all civilisation", are being used by a new grouping of world

finance capital.

(1)See:V.Trukhanovsky "British Foreign Policy During World War II." Progress

Publishers. Moscow 1970.

(2)See:W.P. and Zelda K. Coates "A History of Anglo-Soviet Relations." Vol.II.

Lawrence and Wishart. London 1948.

(3)See:New Times, No.8, 1980.)

See also:Prof. Nikolai Yakoflev "CIA Target: The USSR." Progress Publishers.

Moscow 1980.

Just 6 months after the end of the Second World War, during his notorious "Iron

Curtain" speech at Fulton, Missouri in March 1946 ("Iron Curtain" being a term


used by Goebbels)*, Churchill used Goebbels' "an iron curtain descending over

Europe" to justify the Cold War policy of US finance capital. Churchill's speech

called for a crusade against "the growing challenge and peril to Christian

civilisation" - the USSR. And the British Labour leaders fully supported

Churchill's Fulton policy. Churchill suggested that the British and US

governments begin nuclear bombing the USSR while the Soviets did not have the

atom bomb. The "Churchill Doctrine" later became the "Truman Doctrine." In 1946

Churchill said:

"Our failure to strangle Bolshevism at birth lies heavily upon us today."

(Winston Churchill, 1946.)

"As I understood the Fulton speech, it was a preventive war which Mr. Churchill

had in mind."

(British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin, House of Commons, March 28 1950.)

"...we are now about to make military sense in Germany. Despite denials from

some sources, we have drawn up plans to reactivate some of those tough fighting

German Panzer and SS divisions, give them plenty of food and first-rate American

equipment... The Germans, always good soldiers, would rather fight against their

historic enemies - the Mongol-Slavs of Eastern Europe - than against their blood

cousins to the West ...British, Americans and French... years ago, we pointed

out that FDR [Roosevelt] was backing the wrong horse in this war - that the

continent of Europe, so far as sternly isolationist America was concerned was

better off under Germanic rule than under Joe Stalin."

(John O'Donnell, in the Washington Times Herald March 31 1948.)

"In the spring of 1948 the White House saw war with the Soviet Union as

imminent... By now there was no longer any uncertainty in the minds of the

colonel's men in the CIA's Office of Special Operations. The Soviet Union was

the enemy, and the "Soviet target" our intelligence mission. We were

professionally and emotionally committed to a single purpose. We felt ourselves

as much a part of the American crusade against Stalin as we had against Hitler.

We worked hard and long hours, at night and on weekends, in an atmosphere of

impatient tension. The Cold War was a hot war for the operators..."

(Ex CIA officer Harry Rositzke.) (1)

In 1920 Churchill had said: "Peace with the German people, war on the Bolshevik


Five years after his desperate plea to the Soviet Union for rescue in the

Ardennes and his hypocritical praise of the USSR Churchill was back to his true

interventionist self of 1917:

*"If the German people lay down their arms the whole of Eastern and

South-Eastern Europe, together with the Reich would come under Russian

domination. Behind the iron curtain mass butcheries would begin, and all that

would remain would be a crude automation, a daily fermenting mass of thousands

of proletarians and a desparing slave animals knowing nothing of the outside


(Goebbels, 1941, in "Das Reich" Feb 25 1945. (My italics B.M.))

(1)See:Harry Rositzke "CIA's Secret Operations. Espionage, Counterespionage and

Covert Actions." Reader's Digest Press. NY 1977

"The Soviet menace, to my eyes, had already replaced the Nazi foe."

date(Winston Churchill, 1950.) (1)

And later:

"It even occurred to me that an announced but peaceful aerial demonstration over

the main Soviet cities, coupled to the outlining to the Soviet leaders of some

of our newest inventions, would produce in them a more friendly and sober


date(Winston Churchill.) (2)

"The use of this weapon [nuclear bomb B.M.] would shake the foundations of the

Soviet regime throughout the vast areas of Russia, and the breakdown of

communications and centralised control might well enable the brave Russian

peoples to free themselves from a tyranny far worse than that of the Tsars."

(Winston Churchill, to the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe at

Strasbourg, Aug 11 1950.)

What stopped them?

"The British people were completely fed up with war and would never have been

persuaded to fight the Russians in 1945... The Russians had been built up as

heroes during the German war, and any British Government that wanted to fight

them in 1945 would have been in for trouble at home."

(Field-Marshal Montgomery.) (3)

"The great majority of Englishmen realise, as you and I do, the need for Russian

friendship. They would tolerate no Government that pursued an opposite course."

(Lord Beaverbrook, in a letter to Winston Churchill, June 16 1945.) (4)

"Feeling, as most people in Britain did, deeply grateful to the Russians for

their heroic fight against Hitler, the British public did not see why the

war-time alliance should break down after victory, and hoped devoutly that it

would not."

US?(US historian William Hardy McNeill.) (5)

#"[At the end of the war B.M.] ...the hopes of our people [for continued

American-Soviet cooperation B.M.] ,,,were high and there would have been great

disappointment, if not resentment, had we not tried to work with the Russians."

(US Secretary of State J.F.Byrnes.) (6)

"By and large Western opinion was as strongly pro-Russian as it was anti-German,

with the result that, even if they had been inclined to do so, the British and

American Governments could not have won public support for any policy which was

designed to keep Russia in check or which provided for anything less than the

extirpation of German militarism."

(British historian Chester Wilmot "The Struggle For Europe.")

(1)Winston Churchill "The Second World War." London 1959.

(2)Winston Churchill "The Second World War." London 1959.

(3)"The Memoirs of Field-Marshal Montgomery of Alemein." London 1958.

(4)See:V.Trukhanovsky "Winston Churchill." Progress Publishers. Moscow 1978.

(5)William Hardy McNeill "America, Britain and Russia. Their Coo-operation and

Conflict, 1941-1946. London 1953. VT379

#(6)J.F.Byrnes "All In One Lifetime." NY 1958.

And what was Soviet public opinion?

"Two years after the worst war in history, most Russians are convinced that

there will not be another in the near future. The Russians are trying to get

their badly-damaged land in order, so that they may continue their vast

socialist plan. They have abiding faith in their leaders and their system.

They are convinced that, not only is their way of life best for all peoples, but

that one day the rest of the world will come round to that way of thinking...

The Russians see no danger to world peace in their way of life. They do see

danger in the American way of conviction. And they are sure that influential

people in various parts of the world see in the USSR a permanent challenge to

their selfish desires, and, therefore, want war. This war they think will not

come about because the people of the world do not want it. But they remain


(Pulitzer Prize winner, American journalist Eddie Gilmore, in the London Star.)


Why do the Soviets remain prepared? Didn't the West sign agreements with them at


"It would indeed be a disaster if we kept all our agreements in good faith."

(Winston Churchill.) (2)

"Churchill later betrayed his insincerity. He said he had accepted some of the

agreements in the Crimea only to encourage the Soviet Union to make the fullest

use of its giant military power against Germany and Japan."

(Soviet Professor G. Deborin "Secrets of the Second World War.)

"What would have happened if we had quarrelled with Russia while the Germans

still had two or three hundred divisions on the fighting front?"

#date(Winston Churchill.) (3)

The West's agreements during the war were made in order to make the "fullest

use" of the Soviet peoples' sacrifice while the Soviet Union still had

"divisions on the fighting front." The fighting over, there was no longer any

need to keep "all our agreements in good faith".

(1)See:Harry Pollitt "Looking Ahead." The Communist Party of Great Britain.

London 1947.

(2)See:V.Trukhanovsky "Winston Churchill." Progress Publishers. Moscow 1978.

(3)Winston Churchill "The Second World War." London 1954

Chapter 44



III. Germany. Allied armies occupy Germany and the German people have begun to

atone for the terrible crimes committed under the leadership of those whom, in

the hour of their success, they openly approved and blindly obeyed...

German militarism and Nazism will be extirpated...

Text of agreement:

(a) All German land, naval and air forces, the SS, SA, SD, the Gestapo, with all

their organisations, staffs and institutions, including the General Staff, the

Officer's Corps, Reserve Corps, military schools, war veterans' organisations

and all other military and quasi-military organisations, together with all clubs

and associations which serve to keep alive the military tradition in Germany,

shall be completely and finally abolished in such a manner as permanently to

prevent the revival or reorganisation of German militarism and Nazism...

6. All members of the Nazi party... shall be removed from public and semi-public

office, and from positions of responsibility in important private


(From the Potsdam Agreement.) (1)

Contrary to the 1945 Potsdam agreement, top Nazis who financed and supported

Hitler: the bosses of Krupp, Siemens, AEG, Thyssen, Flick and Junkers, boss of

Deutsche Bank Hermann Abs, and the bosses of the chemical giant IG-Farben, after

early release from jail, were soon back behind their desks in powerful positions

in banks, industry, and Government; while the West German public services were

purged of communists under the Berufsverbote policy. Many ex-Nazis were soon

back as bosses of large trusts, many of them US-German monopolies which

throughout the war had traded with the enemy and had profited enormously from

the labour of the concentration camps, and US-German trusts and cartels such as

Agfa, Bell and Howell, Carbide and Carbon, Dow Chemicals, Eastman Kodak, General

Motors, Goodyear Tyre and Rubber, National Aniline and Chemical Co (part of

BASF), Proctor and Gamble, Standard Oil and Du Pont, continued to operate. (2)

By 1946 87 percent of IG-Farben's war industries were still intact. IG-Farben

stock rose on the Munich Stock Exchange from 68 percent to 142½ percent.

According to the West German Economic Institute the profits of the three main

enterprises of IG-Farben's amounted to 1,782 Million marks in 1963 alone.

The very same men who were responsible for the Nazi war crimes and who profited

from the slave labour in the concentration camps; the very same men who

according to the judgement of the people of Europe should have been removed from

power and punished - the IG-Farben directors, the bankers, Abs, Flick, Krupp and

other big capitalists - are again the most powerful people who determine the

internal and external policy of West Germany.

"Added together there are 94 men who in the combined functions of administration

or board membership in essence control the West German economy. As a group they

are responsible to nobody but themselves."

(Christ und Welt, Stuttgart, Sept 4 1964.)

Flick, sentenced for war crimes such as exploitation of slave labour, after

1945, apart from becoming general manager of Flick of Dusseldorf and on the

boards of many other companies, became chairman of the board of directors of

Dynamit Aktien

(1)See:"Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam." (Transcripts.) Progress Publishers. Moscow


(2)See:A. Kahn "High Treason. The Plot Against the People." The Hour Publishers.

NY 1950.

Gesellschaft, formerly Alfred Nobel and Company (inventor of dynamite and

founder of the Nobel Peace Prize).

Hermann Abs, who was sentenced as a war criminal but was soon back behind his

desk as boss of the Deutsche Bank, employed by the British and American

occupation authorities to rebuild Germany's banking system, also became chairman

of the board of directors of the IG-Farben successor Badische Anilin und Soda

Fabrik (BASF), vice president of the Deutsche Bundesbahn, vice chairman of the

administrative council of Kreditbank for Reconstruction, chairman of over 40

boards of various enterprises, representative of many employers' associations,

and is referred to as Bonn's "uncrowned Minister of Finance."

It was IG-Farben who manufactured the Zyklon gas that murdered millions of

Communists, Socialists, Trade Unionists, anti-Fascists and Jews. It was formed

before the war by the three German chemical giants Bayer, Hoechst and Badische

Aniline Soda Fabrik (BASF), which dominated the world chemical industry. Farben

was a Jewish company and supported Hitler's National Socialist Party. Farben

created IG-Auschwitz, which as well as making the Zyklon gas, also made

synthetic oil and rubber with slave labour from the concentration camps.

IG-Farben was a member of giant international cartels which included Kuhlmann

(France), Mitsui (Japan), ICI (Britain), Montecatini (Italy), Aussiger Verain

(Czechoslovakia), Boruta (Poland), Standard Oil, Du Pont and Dow Chemical (US).


Contrary to the Potsdam agreement and the Geneva Convention on chemical warfare,

IG-Farben successor company Farbenfabriken Bayer AG Leverkusen cooperates with

the US military industrial complex in chemical warfare research, experiments and

production. Bayer AG evades these laws by transferring its activities to US

territory under its subsidiary the Chemagro Corporation which supplies the US

with poisonous gases.

The same transnationals are employing the same Nazi scientists making even more

horrible chemical and biological weapons today. They were involved in these

weapons used by the US against the people of Vietnam. Old Nazi companies such as

Bayer AG, through its US branches such as the Chemagro Corporation in Kansas

City; all dealt in these weapons for use in Indochina by the US Chemical Corps,

who kept the manufacturers informed of the results in order that they might

'improve' their 'products'.

One of the gases used in Vietnam was developed at the Bayer research centre in

West Germany by Dr. Wolfgang Wirth, Dr. Gerhard Schrader and Dr. Otto Ambros -

all of whom were engaged in chemical and biological research for the Nazis.

Schrader developed the Zyklon B gas for the Nazi concentration camps. Wirth

developed the Tabun nerve gas. The Badische Anilin und Soda-Fabrik company

(BASF), through its US subsidiaries and Farbwerke Hoechst AG, was also involved

in Vietnam. (2)

(1)See:Joseph Borkin "The Crime and Punishment of IG-Farben." Andre Deutsch.

London. 1979.

See also: The Nuremberg Trial Papers.

(2)See:The Grey Book - Expansionist Policy and Neo-Nazism in West Germany.

Verlag Zeit im Bild. Dresden.

"They [the US. B.M.] have shown great interest in the new and most effective

poison gas which is being developed in West German laboratories on the basis of

the gas used by IG-Farben at the time of the Second World War. The German

military leaders and a number of industrial firms in the Federal Republic are

helping the Americans... in Vietnam... Thus an arrangement was made to send

several experts from the Farbwerke Hoechst AG to the USA and to let the USA have

the necessary technical data and documents for the production of gas with lethal

effects of the Zyklon B type, which the Nazis had used to a great degree in

their concentration camps... and which the Americans have already begun to use

in South Vietnam...

According to recommendations of the American-German Military Strategical

Guidance Centre in Treves - which were approved by the governments of both

countries - the most recent data on the production and employment of chemical

and bacteriological weapons are being exchanged..."

(Eastern World, London July-August 1966.)

Dr. Konrad Adenauer, Prime minister of West Germany after the war, protege of

the Vatican, leader of the Rhine Catholics, close friends with the Ruhr

industrialists, sat in the prewar Prussian parliament and prepared the way for

Hitler, was also a director of the Deutsche Bank. Adenauer had been a great

admirer of Mussolini, and after Mussolini's pact with the Vatican he sent

Mussolini a telegram saying that: "The name of Mussolini will be inscribed in

letters of gold in the history of the Catholic Church." Some try to whitewash

Adenauer because of his arrest after the July 20 plot against Hitler and posing

as an anti-Nazi. But the July 20 plot was by the bankers and industrialists,

directed from Switzerland by Allen Dulles, himself a director of the Schroeder

Bank, who saw that the Nazis were being defeated and they wanted to make Germany

still safe for capitalism.

The men who controlled Hitler's armaments industries were back in control of

West Germany's armaments factories. Members of the Gestapo and Hitler's police

and special investigation and security forces were back behind their desks in

West Germany's police, security and law enforcement establishments.

Nazi SS man Dr.Rieck became a minister for Marshall Aid. Globke, who wrote the

official Nazi race laws, became Adenauer's personal assistant. Speidel became

Commander of NATO ground forces in Central Europe. And Dutch fascist Joseph Lunz

became head of NATO.

The Brown Book on War and Nazi Criminals in West Germany published in the GDR

contains thousands of cases of Nazis that were soon back in their jobs in West

Germany. Just a few examples from the Brown Book are from a list of Nazi

judiciaries, doctors, administrators and others and their positions in West

Germany after they had been convicted of war crimes at Nuremberg:

"Emil Finnberg: SS Sturmbannfuhrer. Today: Lawyer in Hamburg.

Dr. Kurt Niesling: SS investigating magistrate and court officer in Krakow.

Today: Lawyer in Wiesbaden.

Walter Entrich: Gendarmerie Captain in the Ukraine. Today: Police Inspector in


Dr. Kurt Uhlenbroock: SS Sturmbannfuhrer and doctor in Auschwitz concentration

camp. Today: Physician in Hamburg.

Helmut Bartsch: SS Hauptsturmfuhrer and member of an investigating committee in

Auschwitz. Today: Police inspector in Krefeld.

Joseph Schreieder: SS Obersturmbannfuhrer and criminal director in occupied

Holland. Today: Senior Government Counsellor in Munich.

Gunther Burmeister: SS Standartenfuhrer and office head of central SS court.

Today: Senior Provincial Court Counsellor in Schleswig.

Hans Zentgraf: SS Obersturmbannfuhrer and head of an SS and police court in

Riga. Today: Lawyer in Aachen.

Willy Osthues: SS Hauptsturmfuhrer and judge at the SS and police court in

Krakow. Today: Lawyer in Munich."

(The Brown Book. War and Nazi Criminals in West Germany.)

"Of several thousands of criminals in the "Action Group" trials of 1947-48 only

24 leading representatives were accused: 6 SS Generals, 5 SS Standartenfuhrers,

6 SS Obersturmbannfuhrers, 4 SS Sturmbannfuhrers, and 3 SS officers of lower

rank. Fourteen death sentences were passed on 24 accused of which only four were

confirmed. All the others, who were sentenced to long terms of imprisonmemt were

pardoned already in 1951 and for the most part released from imprisonment. [Then

follows lists of names and positions. B.M.] The greater part of these bestial

murderers today live unmolested in West Germany or abroad. Only under the most

extreme public pressure have proceedings been introduced in a few individual


(The Brown Book. War and Nazi Criminals in West Germany.)

Theodor Oberlander murdered thousands of Poles and Soviets, especially as part

of the "Nachtigall Battalion" in Byelorussia which in the first days of the war

murdered thousands of communists and intelligentsia in Lvov in June 1940, most

of whom were already on the death lists compiled by the "Institute for German

East Activity." Oberlander's "Bergmann" regiment was responsible for the

suppression of the Warsaw uprising in 1944.

"In any case we must achieve complete Germanisation in the eastern territories.

Measures effecting complete ejection and resettlement may seem to be harsh to

those involved... but severity employed once is better than small scale warfare

carried on for generations... For this reason, along with many others, an

assimilation of the Polish people must be rejected."

(Theodor Oberlander, Neues Bauerntum April-May 1940.)

After the war Oberlander became Adenauer's Minister for Refugees and a CDU

member in the Bundestag.

Nazi Generals and military leaders who proved that international laws and the

laws of humanity mean nothing to them were immediately employed by the US for

their experience in fighting the Soviets and eventually were back in command of

the Bundeswehr with nuclear weapons at their disposal.

Nazi Field Marshal Kesselring, responsible for air attacks on Britain in 1940;

was on February 1954, as President of the Neo-Nazi "Stalhelm" (steel helmet)

veteran's organisation, presented with a cake with marzipan jet fighters and

iced with the words "To the old eagle" by US Colonel Armstrong at a US airfield

in West Germany.(1)

Hitler's Chief of Staff General Halder and his tank and blitzkrieg expert

General Guderian were employed by the US Army to explain the German Army's

mistakes in its invasion of the Soviet Union.

"A damned scandal that men like Jodl, Doenitz and Raeder should be held as war

criminals. They should be released and working with us, giving us the benefit of

their experiences."

(Allied Colonel of Press Relations, Berlin, 1945.) (2)

Nazi Colonel Johannes Trautloft flew in the German "Condor Legion" which bombed

Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. In his book "As A Fighter Pilot in Spain"

and in his diary he describes the attack on the tiny village of Olalla in Toledo

and his participation in what became known to the world as the "massacre of the

children of Getafe" where 63 children were killed in the bombing of a school:

"Flying low we fire our machine-gun bursts into the enemy... Human beings creep

forth, many stagger, fall, lie still... Certainly nothing can give the soldier

more satisfaction than the sight of the enemy in a confused, panic-stricken

flight... Before flying back to Cacares we drink several glasses of light ale

and then fly home with considerable dash."

(Johannes Trautloft, in his book "As A Fighter Pilot in Spain.")

"The work accomplished today is tremendous."

(Johannes Trautloft, in his diary after Getafe, Oct 30 1936.)

After 1945 Trautloft spent his time building neo-fascist military organisations

such as the Association of the Condor Legion where he declared in 1956:

(1)See:"Conspiracy Against Europe. The Paris Agreements." Committee for German

Unity. Berlin 1955.

(2)See:Wilfred Burchett "Cold War in Germany." Melbourne 1950

"The effectiveness of the Condor Legion in Spain must be an example to young

people in Federal Germany."

(Johannes Trautloft, Klopp Castle, Bingen, 1956.)

Trautloft became Commanding General of West Germany's Luftwaffe Group South.

"The education system in Germany must be so supervised that fascist and military

doctrines are completely eliminated and a successful development of democratic

ideas is made possible."

(From the Potsdam Agreement.)

In the GDR the entire education system was de-nazified. In 1945-46 alone, out of

37,000 teachers, 22,600 former members of the Nazi party were dismissed from the

education service and their places were taken by new teachers or trainees from

the democratic, progressive, labour, liberal and humanitarian sections of

society. Fascist professors, teachers, historians, publishers, writers and

journalists are never again allowed to influence public opinion.

In West Germany, Nazi teachers, and professors of Nazi philosophy and ideology

were back lecturing in their universities and colleges and schools. Nazi

historians, publishers, writers and journalists were again churning out the same

naked capitalist hatred and militarism.

"For the purpose of transforming the German legal system, all previous members

of the nazi party who took an active part in its activities, and all other

persons who were directly involved in the methods of punishment of the Hitler

regime must be deprived of their office as judges and public prosecutors and may

not be re-admitted to such offices."

(Allied Control Council decree on basis of Potsdam Agreement, Oct 30 1945.)

Judges who sent millions of Europeans to their deaths without even a trial were

back in West Germany's legal system; many of them as defence witnesses in war

crimes trials, giving 'evidence' that Nazi legislation was correct and legal.

Nazi Public Prosecutor Eduard Dreher who sent hundreds of thousands of

communists, trade unionists, labour activists, anti-fascists and Jews to their

deaths from the Special Court at Innsbruck. After 1945 he became Ministerial

Director in Bonn's Federal Ministry of Justice and reporter of the Great Penal

Law Commission drafting West Germany's Penal Code:

"In my opinion, the statute proceeds from the principle that the citizen can, on

the one hand, vote as he wants to, but that, on the other hand, he should vote

as he thinks best for the benefit of the state. If, however, a citizen stabs, so

to speak, the state in the back and thus proves that he is opposed to the

well-being of the state, it might be quite sensible to deprive him of the right

to vote."

(Minutes of the Great Penal Law Commission of West Germany.) (1)

By 1945 there became no difference between the Nazi press and the Allied press

in their anti-Soviet stories and in their complete rehabilitation of the Nazis.

(1)See:The Brown Book. War and Nazi Criminals in West Germany. Verlag Zeit im

Bild. Dresden.

As part of its campaign to divide Germany after the war the Western press was

alive with anti-Soviet propaganda:

"One enthusiast in the British I.S.D. (Information Services Division) produced a

plan for "counter propaganda," working through the German press and certain

British journalists... A definite programme of prefabricated stories was to be

floated for simultaneous release to British and German correspondents. An exact

list of stories was contained in the memorandum produced by the official

concerned. It included the following "news" stories. "Mass arrests for former

social democrats in the Soviet Zone," "Food riots in certain cities in Soviet

Zone," "Slave labour in the uranium mines in Soviet Zone," "Mass exodus of

workers to the West,"."

(Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett, in his book "Cold War in Germany.)

They had taken their cue from Goebbels:

"I submit to the Fuhrer my propaganda plan for publicising Soviet atrocities and

my intention to use Guderian in this connection. The Fuhrer is in full agreement

with this plan. He approves the idea that prominent National Socialists should

be kept somewhat in the background in publicising these atrocities since our

information will acquire greater international credibility thereby... it is

essential that people should be absolutely clear on what they think of

bolshevism... We must try to get out of our dilemma somehow."

(Goebbels, in his diary, March 4 1945.)

Books were published in West Germany justifying and glorifying Hitler, appearing

under titles such as "My Brother Adolf" written by Hitler's sister Paula,

"Hitler As He Really Was", "Hitler's Youth", "Talks With Hitler", and "Hitler's

Great Love." The same anti working class, anti-communist, anti-Soviet,

racialist, Nazi attitudes and opinions were cultivated, and with great effect.

It is worth quoting at length the experiences of noted Australian journalist

Wilfred Burchett, who covered post-war Germany:

""You know, Helga, our soldiers didn't always behave as they ought to have done

at the front," she said in a mild understatement.

Helga straightened up and flushed. "Mutti," she screamed, "I won't have you say

things like that about our troops. German soldiers and German officers are

always correct. They could never have behaved like these... these..." and she

sought for a term sufficiently vile, "these Slavic gutter pigs. They should have

been our slaves and would have been but for that awful winter at Stalingrad."

I thought at the time that Helga was an exception, a candidate for a lunatic

asylum, but I soon realised she was the normal spokesman for the Berlin upper


In 1946, I found the German middle-class had forgotten about that episode and

were innocent of any knowledge of persecution of Jews or Communists. "But we had

no idea such things were going on," they would say with wide eyed innocence...

The German middle-class knew better than anybody else what was going on -

especially as regards the Jews. They all had business dealings with the Jews.

Every city-dweller in Germany could see quite well what happened in the first

week of November, 1938, when the synagogues were fired and shops looted.

Concentration camps did not start with the war. They started within a few weeks

of the abolition of the Weimar Constitution which gave Hitler his powers as

dictator. The arrest of thousands of Communists, trade union officials,

socialists and Jews did not take place in 1939 or 1940, but from 1933 onwards...

German "innocence" on these matters has been given official recognition by the

highest British and American officials in Germany.

General Robertson, then British Military Governor, issued a statement on June 4,

1948, giving new "fraternisation" instructions to British personnel in Germany

urging the friendliest and closest relations with the Germans. Amongst other

things he said, "They are a Christian and civilised people to whom we can no

longer bear any ill-will... A people who had fallen under evil influences during

the war."

What was done by the Nazis until the day war broke out is sanctioned in other

words by General Robertson... the nature of General Robertson's appeal is such

as to drive home to the German people that the British chose them rather than

the "un-Christian and uncivilised" Russians. General Robertson tells the Germans

they were quite all right as Nazis, but went wrong "during the war.""

(Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett, in his book "Cold War in Germany.")

To the British ruling class, the Nazis were all right but they shouldn't have

made war - at least not against the West. The West's policy on the Nazis after

the war became the same as it was in the 1930s when British Tories were saying:

"I ask those who hate Hitler... what has Hitler done of which we can reasonably

complain?... Let us try to forget his misdeeds of the past, and the methods

which, no doubt, we all of us deplore, but which I suggest have been very

largely forced upon him."

(British Tory C.T.Culverwell M.P. Oct 6 1938.) (1)

The Potsdam treaty and other agreements were to remove Nazis from any positions

of power:

"Those German officers and men and members of the Nazi party who have been

responsible for, or have taken a consenting part in, the atrocities, massacres

and executions, will be sent back to the countries in which their abominable

deeds were done in order that they may be judged and punished... The three

Allied powers pursue them to the uttermost ends of the Earth and will deliver

them to their accusers in order that justice may be done."

(From the Declaration on German (Nazi) Atrocities, signed by Britain, the US and

the USSR in Moscow Oct 30 1943.)

"It is our inflexible purpose to destroy German militarism and Nazism...

...German economy shall be decentralised, for the purpose of eliminating the

present excessive concentration of economic powers, as exemplified in particular

by cartels, syndicates, trusts and other monopolistic arrangements."

(From the Potsdam Agreement.)

"The history of the use of the I.G. Farben trust by the Nazis reads like a

detective story. Defeat of the Nazi army will have to be followed by the

eradication of those weapons of economic warfare."

(Roosevelt, in a letter to Cordell Hull, Sept 8 1944.) (2)

Removal of IG-Farben plant by the Western allies was stopped on orders from the

US Government.

The Potsdam treaty agreement to remove Nazis from power was firmly resisted by

the British and Americans:

"The forces of fascism in Germany are very far from being eradicated. As you

know, land reform and the liquidation of the big landowners, those former

reliable supporters of Hitler, has only been carried out in the Soviet

Occupation Zone, and has not even been started in the western zones... all those

cartels, trusts, syndicates and so on on which German fascism relied in

preparation for aggression and waging war, continue to exercise their influence,

especially in the western zones."

(Soviet delegate to the Foreign Minister's Conference, Paris, 1946.)

By 1946 most Nazi industrial leaders were free.

#(1)See:Gracchus "Your M.P." Victor Gollancz. London 1944.

(2)See:Charles Higham "Trading With the Enemy." Robert Hale. London 1983.

Because of American resistance to the denazification programme, the head of the

US decartelisation authority, Colonel Bernstein resigned in 1945. His deputy

explains why:

"...on every step of the hierarchy of the US Military Government and from one

end of the American Zone of Germany to the other, responsible officers are

resisting denazification on the grounds that we must erect a bulwark against

Bolshevism and Russia. It is quite clear that the last six months in Germany

have resulted in the setting aside of the decartelisation department, which was

really serious in its efforts to destroy the economic concentration of power and

which made the Potsdam Agreement the guide to its actions."

(Russell A. Nixon, deputy to the resigned head of the decartelisation authority

of the US Military Government, Colonel Bernstein, in a statement to the Senate

Committee on Armed Services, Feb 1946.) (1)

All Nixon was able to do was arrest a few minor Nazis. He wanted to arrest the

leaders of the big Nazi banks and question them about the Austrian and Czech

gold transferred to the Nazis through the BIS at the beginning of the war. US

intelligence was ordered not to make the arrests. When Nixon protested to

Washington the Nazi bankers were taken in; but they were immediately released

and the US Government threatened Nixon with conviction as a "radical".

When Nixon arrested Richard Freudenberg, a major Nazi industrialist who worked

with Goering, the US Ambassador to Germany Robert Murphy ordered his release:

"It is not in conformity with American standards to cut away the basis of

private property."

(US Ambassador to Germany Robert Murphy.) (2)

The British also obstructed Russell Nixon's work. The British Labour Government

was in deep financial crisis and wanted good connections with Germany. The

British were also interested in maintaining IG-Farben. When Nixon complained to

Sir Percy Mills of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Mills put further obstructions in

the way.

Bernstein's successor, James Martin also resigned in July 1947:

"I am resigning in protest against the machinations of the big American

companies in Germany...

These American groups want to set up a Germany controlled by the monopolies in

the heart of Europe."

(James Martin, July 1947.) (3)

Martin's successor was told by General Clay to:

"...stop at once all measures to loosen the monopolies or dissolve the trusts."

(US General Clay, to Martin's successor, R. Bronson, Spring 1948.) (4)

(1)See:Denis and Cynthia Roberts "How to Secure Peace in Europe." Harney and

Jones. London 1985.

See also:Martin Radmann "Potsdam Agreement and 20 Years Later." Verlag Zeit im

Bild. Dresden

(2)See:Charles Higham "Trading With the Enemy." Robert Hale. London 1983.

(3)See:Denis and Cynthia Roberts "How to Secure Peace in Europe." Harney and

Jones. London 1985.

(4)See:Denis and Cynthia Roberts "How to Secure Peace in Europe." Harney and

Jones. London 1985.

"We had not been stopped in Germany by German big business. We had been stopped

in Germany by American big business. The forces that stopped us had operated

from the United States but had not operated in the open. We were not stopped by

a law of Congress, by an Executive Order of the President, or even by a change

of policy approved by the President... in short, whatever it was that had

stopped us was not "the government." But it clearly had command of channels

through which the government normally operates. The relative powerlessness of

governments in the growing economic power is of course not new... national

governments stood on the sidelines while bigger operators arranged the world's


(James Martin, in his book "All Honourable Men.")

When the remaining 19 staff at the department wrote protesting to General Clay,

they were sacked.

In 1945 and 1946 US Assistant Attorney General O. John Rogge wanted to expose

US-Nazi connections in top busineess, banking, finance and government circles.

Attorney General Tom C. Clarke reluctantly authorised the mission. Rogge

researched at Nuremberg and wrote a report to Attorney General Clarke. Clarke

immediately declared the report a "secret document" and it could not be

publicised. With permission from the US Justice Department, Rogge went on a two

week lecture tour with his findings. On a flight to give a lecture in Seattle,

Washington, his plane encountered "bad weather" and made an unscheduled stop for

"refuelling" at Spokane, where he was told there was "no room" for him on the

rest of the flight. A "stranger" at the airport where his plane made the

"unscheduled" stop handed Rogge an envelope. The stranger said he was from the

FBI, and the letter was Rogge's instant dismissal from his job. This was on

President Truman's orders to Attorney General Clark, who told the press that

Rogge was dismissed for violating "long-standing rules and regulations." (1)

"In my opinion, international fascism, though defeated in battle, is not dead...

No, fascism is not dead in the United States. On the contrary it is now in the

process of postwar reconversion... The old familiar faces are spouting the old

familiar fascist lies."

(US Assistant Attorney General O. John Rogge, in a memo to the Attorney General,

Feb 28 1946.)

The West made it quite clear that they had no intention of keeping to the

Potsdam agreement:

"I think the Potsdam agreement, for all intents and purposes, should now be

treated as pretty much of a dead letter."

(J.F.Dulles, US Senate Hearings on the European Recovery Plan [Marshall Plan.

B.M.] Jan 1948.)

The Americans had become the new "master race":

"We saved my wife in the war. She was a slave-labourer and Jewish...

The Americans kicked me out of Germany when I objected to the light treatment of

Schacht and others at Nuremberg... I saw how the Americans were re-nazifying


I tried to get my fiancee to America, but no: ten thousand war criminals were

more welcome."

(James C. Bilotta, Chairman of the American Veteran's Committee in Frankfurt, in

a letter to Soviet Weekly newspaper, London, Sept 20 1986.)

Thousands of ex-Nazis and Nazi collaborators and war criminals were brought

secretly to Britain and the US after the war. As is detailed later in this book;


(1)See:A.E.Khan "High Treason." The Hour Publishers. NY 1950.

of these were anti-communist 'emigres' from the USSR who had collaborated with

the Nazis and murdered many thousands of their own people.

British propaganda makes much of some of these "dissidents", described by the

British authorities as innocent "political refugees", fascists who having worked

with the Nazis, were British prisoners of war and returned to the USSR,

naturally against their will, after the war - the so-called "victims of Yalta."

As we shall see later in this book, many of these were Ukrainian nationalists

and Vlasovites who had collaborated with the Nazis. Of course they didn't want

to go back to the USSR, where they would be tried for their war crimes against

their own people.

Foreign Office files now declassified show that the British authorities in no

way accepted that these were innocent refugees:

"It is clear that these Ukrainians are in no way to be regarded as innocent

political dissidents."

(Foreign Office Official.) (1)

Others were Nazi collaborators and anti-communists from the newly emerging

Socialist countries. Officially described as "political refugees", they became

very useful in the new Cold War against the more feared enemy than the Nazis -

the Soviets. Some of these collaborators on Soviet territory were, given the

task by their Nazi masters of staying behind in Soviet territory after the

German retreat. British MI6 officers searched the displaced persons camps after

the war recruiting agents to sneak back or be parachuted by the RAF into Soviet

territory to carry out destruction of bridges and transport and other

installations, terrorism, disruption, shoot Soviet soldiers, and to send back

information. The Soviets captured leaders of the Western backed "Ukrainian

Insurgent Army" and Ukrainian "freedom fighters" working for the West and

radioing information to Western intelligence from hidings in the Carpathian

mountains as late as 1952. Some of these Ukrainian Nazis had entered the USSR

from exile with the Nazi invasion in 1941.

Collaborators and anti-communists emigres were also recruited by the West for

their subversive radio stations such as "Radio Liberty" and "Radio Free Europe",

beaming propaganda and instructions for disruption into the socialist countries.

The West propaganda services set up emigre organisations and 'conferences' such

as the "Convention of Delegates of the Resistance Movements of the

Anti-Bolshevik Nations of Europe and Asia" now known as ABN (the Anti-Bolshevik

Bloc of Nations), held by the "Scottish League for European Freedom" in June

1950. These 'conferences' were the successor of the "Conference of Enslaved

Nations of Eastern Europe" set up by the Reich ministry for Occupied Eastern

Territories in 1943. The ABN's executive included the Byelorussian collaborator

Vladislav Ostrowsky (Rodoslav Ostroski), a Latvian SS officer who was awarded

the Iron Cross by the Nazis for his services to the Reich, and a Hungarian

General of the viciously fascist Arrow Cross which engineered a coup which

bought to power a Nazi government in Hungary in 1944 and then annihilated the

Jews of Hungary.

As well as for propaganda purposes, many fascist collaborators and emigres were

recruited by the British and Americans to go back into their countries as

saboteurs, spies, propaganda activists, and to sit and wait for the right moment

for disruption, anti-communist activities and counter-revolution. From these and

the Nazis, Western intelligence needed the fullest details and information about

the extent of the Soviet Union's war damage and its capacity to defend itself.

They also wanted extensive information on Communist groups and individuals in

their countries and in Western Europe; and they recruited members of the Gestapo

and their collaborators and their Nazi masters who had been so expert in

liquidating communists and their supporters and sympathisers and gathering

information on them. One of these, recruited by the Britain's SIS in 1945 and by

the Americans, was Klaus Barbie, the 'butcher of Lyons', who had extensive

information on the French and Dutch Communists and resistance.

(1)See:New Statesman Aug 5 1988.

Much was learned of British post-war intentions and attitudes by the Soviets who

had heavily infiltrated the displaced persons camps and the emigre organisations

with their own agents. And the British SIS department for anti-Soviet activities

was headed by Kim Philby, who was also the liaison officer with the CIA. Also

the US Justice Department, with a much more freedom of information, provided

massive evidence not available in Britain of what the British were doing in this


The British SIS and Sir Stewart Menzies secured the co-operation of Labour

Foreign Minister Bevin in the new Cold War against the Soviet Union. It became

an obstruction to the Cold War and an embarrassment to the British Government to

continue the war crimes prosecutions of these many thousands of collaborators

and Nazis, who are now employed by the British Secret Services, the CIA, the

Pentagon, and British and US chemical and biological warfare establishments and

laboratories and universities. British scientists from Porton Down searched

occupied Germany for Nazi scientists in order to gain their information on

chemical and biological warfare. Klaus Barbie was employed as an MI-6 agent from

1945 to 1947. Many Nazi experimenters from the concentration camps are now heads

of Western chemical, medical and biological institutions, companies,

laboratories and government ministries.

Auschwitz 'doctor' Valadistov Dering, who 'operated' on teenage Jewish girls

became a doctor in the British colonial service in Somalia and ended up running

a highly profitable Harley Street practice in London and was awarded the Order

of the British Empire. (1)

"At the present time, there is resident in the British zone, a Soviet citizen.

His presence in the British zone is a source of embarrassment to the British

military government, as the Soviet authorities are continually asking for his

return for trial as a war criminal.

And the British have asked me if it is possible for US intelligence authorities

to take him off their hands and see that he be sent to the US where he can be


(US intelligence document, Germany, 1947.) (2)

The Soviet citizen in question is Nikolai Poppe, wanted as a war criminal by the

USSR. Professor Poppe is still living happily in the USA.

Demands by the Soviet Union for the return of war criminals to face sentence are

ignored by the West. Only one or two token deportations have been carried out.

Fedorenko, who worked for the SS at Treblinka, where more than 800,000 people

from 20 nations, including 1,500 from Britain and the US, were murdered, was

deported from the US in 1984; and Karl Linnas, an Estonian nationalist and

member of an Estonian fascist organisation in his university days, who worked

for the Nazis even in unoccupied territory behind the Soviet lines and later

volunteered to serve in the Tartu death camp where he became the chief and took

part personally in the murder of 12,000 Soviet people, including Estonians,

Russians, Ukrainians and Jews from 1941, was returned to the USSR in 1987.

"In December 1941 little children who could not even walk were brought here. The

guards dragged them to the ditch. Babies were taken to the ditch and shot. The

sick and wounded would be brought to the execution on stretchers. In spring,

when the snow melted, dead bodies could be seen in the water. Later the ditch

was filled in and wheat was sown there..."

(Lilli Lyoke, witness of the Tartu death camp.)

(1)See:"Conspiracy Against Europe. The Paris Agreements." Committee for German

Unity. Berlin 1955.

See also: John Loftus "The Belarus Secret." Penguin. London 1983.

#See also: Charles Allen Jr. Reference Book on Nazis in Britain and the US.

(2)See:Morning Star Jan 31 1987.

When the Red Army was getting close, Czech prisoners were ordered to dig up and

burn the bodies, and were killed themselves. Linnas joined the retreating German

army and disappeared.

Protected in West Germany at the end of the war, Linnas was not troubled by the

denazification authorities and was helped to reach the US in 1951, where he was

given US citizenship and lived happily near New York. Ervid Vyks, who also

murdered thousands of Soviet people at Tartu, found shelter in Australia. Both

the US and Australian governments refused extradition of Linnas and Vyks, so

they were tried in absentia. Only after years of US public pressure was Linnas

put on trial in the US in 1979, but only for the crime of "concealing his past"

from US immigration officials. Linnas was deprived of his US citizenship in 1981

and deportation proceedings were carried out in 1983. US officials and lawyers

immediately chased loopholes in the law and nationalist emigre organisations -

those same 'patriotic' dissidents and emigres the Western media loves to listen

to for the 'truth' about human rights in the USSR - campaigned in order to save

Linnas from deportation.

Britain, who signed the Potsdam and other agreements, has not attempted to take

part in any measures for the prosecution of any of the Nazi war criminals who

found shelter and security in Britain. The British Government's excuse for not

following up cases of Nazi war criminals living in Britain in the 1980s was that

it all happened "so long ago." But such an illegitimate excuse was used even

only three years after the war had ended:

"...we are now by stages closing down the process of handing over war criminals,

traitors and collaborators... the obligations into which we entered must be read

in the context of the war, we are now three and a half years past the end of the

war. There is therefore a strong argument for bringing to an end arrangements

made in the wartime atmosphere... in British eyes justice should be deterrent

and reformative and not retributive. There is little likelihood of reforming any

war criminals, and it is extremely doubtful whether their further punishment

will do any more to deter others."

(Secret Foreign Office note to British delegation at UN 1948.) (1)

Thus the British Government, saying that there would be "no deterrent", made it

quite clear that any future such war criminal would only have to hide away for

three and a half years, until we were out of a "wartime atmosphere", and he

could be free to live a comfortable and happy life.

"In general, no fresh trials should be started after August 31, 1948. This would

particularly effect the cases of alleged war criminals who subsequently came

into our hands... In view of future political developments in Germany... it is

necessary to dispose of the past as soon as possible."

(Memo from Commonwealth Relations Secretary Phillip Noel-Baker, 1948.) (2)

A new and much reduced central registry of war criminals "Final Consolidated

Wanted List" of 1948 ("consolidated" being an esoteric way of circumventing:

"thinned out") stated that previous wanted lists should be destroyed.

"Our policy should henceforth be to draw a sponge across the crimes and horror

of the past... There can be no revival of Europe without the active and loyal

aid of all the German tribes."

(Winston Churchill, House of Commons, 1947.)

Churchill then donated to the support fund for Nazi Field Marshal von Manstein

on trial in Hamburg for war crimes in the Soviet Union. Von Manstein was back in

the West German Army by 1952.

(1)See:Searchlight, April 1987.

(2)See:Morning Star Jan 31 1987.

The British government, a Labour government at the time, put all kinds of blocks

on Soviet requests for extradition of war criminals living in Britain; using the

circular argument that if their crimes were proved they would be handed over for


"If an Allied Government desires the arrest of any person as a war criminal, the

British authorities... will hand him over as soon as they are satisfied that the

prima facie case of his identity and of his guilt has been established."

(British Labour Government representative at UN General Assembly Hector McNiel,

1947.) (1)

The Soviets named names and gave overwhelming evidence The insolent British

Labour government reply was to say that these had no chance of a fair trial in

the USSR. In the case of those from Soviet States such as Estonia the Foreign

Office reply was that the British Government did not recognise these countries

as being part of the Soviet Union. The Foreign Office also gave the reply that:

"Former Soviet citizens who have settled in this country were carefully screened

on arrival, and the British authorities always carried out exhaustive enquiries

to ensure they deserved political asylum."

(Guardian diplomatic correspondent, 1970.) (2)

The staff of Japanese General Ishi Shiro's biological weapons establishment,

which had the misleading title of the Kwantung army "Water Supply and Disease

Prevention Administration", later known as Unit 731, mass murderers and

experimenters on US, British, Soviet and Chinese prisoners of war who were

infected with various plagues and typhus and died horrible deaths at the

Japanese death camp, were given a deal by the US. They were guaranteed immunity

from their war crimes by the commander of US forces in the Pacific General

Douglas McArthur in exchange for the entire documentation of their data and

formulae and technical information. Unit 731 had enough anthrax (400kg) to wipe

out mankind. (3)

Unit 731 experimenters were later secreted to the US and employed in US

biological warfare establishments where they developed biological weapons tested

by the US army in Korea and Indochina.

German and Japanese specialists with germ warfare expertise were secreted to the

US and given US citizenship and work on US germ and biological warfare

programmes. Many were employed at the US chemical and biological warfare

establishment at Fort Detrick in Maryland, where AIDS was engineered and became


Such was the lack of endeavour regarding Nazi war criminals on the part of the

West that the few punishments given worked out, as West German Public Prosecutor

Dr. Barbara Just-Dahlmann put it: "One mark, or ten minutes of imprisonment per


"War criminals and those who participated in the planning and execution of Nazi

measures which involved or resulted in cruelties or war crimes shall be arrested

and handed over to the courts."

(From the Potsdam Agreement.)

"Later, many of those useful folk were spirited to the US or to Latin America

with the help of the Vatican and fascist priests; there, they have been engaged

in terrorism, coups, the drug and armaments trade, training... methods of

torture devised by the Gestapo."

(Noam Chomsky, in New Socialist Jan 1986.)

(1)See:New Statesman Aug 5 1988

(2)See:New Statesman Aug 5 1988

(3)See:The Guardian April 2 1982.

Thousands of war crimes cases are still open where the whereabouts of the

criminal is known. The rest are either dead or untraced. The 17 Nazis said to be

living in Britain and the 74 in the US exposed in the British media in 1987 are

only a tiny few of the number still living secretly in Britain and the US and

other countries of Western Europe. There are many thousands more.

And they are not repentant. Klaus Barbie, like Hess' last words at Nuremberg,

remains an unrepentant Nazi, stating that he would do the same all over again.

In May 1951 Nazi Naval Commander Heinrich Gerlach wrote in an article "On the

Ethical Foundations of a New Wehrmacht":

"All power proceeds from the people - in practice this does not mean that

individual citizens exert an immediate influence on public matters. The mass of

little people is absolutely incapable of making its own decisions and of acting

independently. It wants to be governed.

Now what is this new Germany, for which it is worth staking one's life, to look

like? Naturally this new structure must and should be built on the foundations

of the past, a principle which must be emphasised in the reconstruction of a

Wehrmacht... If we wish to make use of these experiences it is first of all

necessary to recognise national socialism and all the events of the Third Reich

as part of our German history... I do not consider everything that originated in

the period of the Third Reich as an error which ought to be rejected simply for

this reason.

Among all the mistakes that were made, much was nevertheless so exemplary, so

appropriate to the conditions of the time and the character of the nation that

it can be accepted as good for the future. In my opinion all these flaws were

caused in a decisive way by the fact that Adolf Hitler unfortunately did not

depend on the old leading class of our nation... Just imagine: the first

thousand supporters of a party leader, of the same mould as Hitler, mainly from

the circles of the good old bourgeoisie, the church, the officers! I am

convinced that with such a 'party' and these 'old party members' our history

would have taken a completely different course."

(Nazi Naval Commander Heinrich Gerlach "On the Ethical Foundations of a New

Wehrmacht.") (1)

After the war Gerlach became Vice Admiral of the West German Navy.

It is sometimes said that the Nazi-hunters should forget it all and go home.

Asked by a rich Jewish jeweller friend and fellow holocaust survivor why he

didn't continue his profession as a builder and become a millionaire,

Nazi-hunter Simon Wiesenthal said:

"You're a religious man, you believe in God and life after death. I also believe

when we come to the other world and meet the millions of Jews who died in the

camps and they ask us, "What have you done?" there will be many answers. You

will say, "I became a jeweller." Another will say, "I smuggled coffee and

American cigarettes." Another will say, "I built houses." But I will say, "I

didn't forget you."

(Simon Wiesenthal.)

(1)See:The Brown Book. War and Nazi Criminals in West Germany. Verlag Zeit im

Bild. Dresden.

The debt owed to humanity can not be repaid while one Nazi criminal remains


"There exists no excuse or justification whatsoever for any person who

deliberately and approvingly participated in any single act that went to make up

these repulsive and horrible crimes, and it does not matter whether he caused or

executed them or only rendered assistance or justified them to the world or

aided and abetted the delinquents."

(Nuremberg War Crimes Trials document.)

There is talk of leniency for these war criminals and letting them live out

their "peaceful old age" because it all happened "so long ago". It must always

be remembered that their victims and the physically and mentally mutilated

survivors were never allowed to live out any peaceful old age. War criminals

cannot be allowed to commit their crimes in the certainty that so long as they

can remain hidden for a few years they will not be brought to justice. Humanity

must not record that crimes committed against it, whether recently or long ago,

can be rewarded with "peaceful old age". It is not revenge that is sought. It is

the heartfelt human duty of justice and retribution and dignity that is owed to

the millions of victims and to the few survivors of the Nazi death camps and to

their surviving families and loved ones that these war criminals should not feel

the security or satisfaction that humanity will reward them with long and happy

lives in "peaceful old age" and that their crimes will go unpunished by


"The biological clock on Nazi criminals is running out, and the record of

history should not read that those who took part in these horrible crimes had

the final victory by depriving justice of its true course."

#(Simon Wiesenthal's Los Angeles centre for Nazi war crimes in a letter to

Helmut Kohl.)

School and college history, economics and business studies teaching and books do

not contain any of this information.

All the material and information I have presented here is readily available to

historians, writers, journalists, teachers, educators and syllabus publishers.

Although I have spent many hundreds of hours gathering it all together, I did

not have to look very far to find any of it.

When as a trainee history lecturer, it was suggested I take the class on a trip

to the Tower of London and then set them an essay on what life was like for a

soldier in King Charles' Army centuries ago. Very useful knowledge that! A

sociology of the past perhaps? But certainly not history in its most important

sense; unless history is to mean anything old or 'interesting' that you can do

in evening classes, like antiques, flower arranging or basket weaving. When

instead I taught real history, learning from the past in order to change the

future, the collective life-experience of humanity, I was got rid of. The head

of the history department complained that the students had remarked that I made

them think; which the head of history had probably never done in a lifetime of

teaching. I ended up washing and cleaning and emptying human surgical waste in a


Unless teachers learn to be brave and intellectually honest (difficult when they

have a mortgage and bills to pay), future historical, social and economic

education and popular 'knowledge' will also not refer to the US or British

history and continuing complicity in global plunder, exploitation, domination

and control, wars of aggrandisement and acquisition, causing the deaths and

devastation of the homes and lands of millions of people - the thousands of

children under the age of two who will die tonight through simple lack of food,

clean water, medicine and education - the untold millions of unnecessary deaths

among the overwhelming majority of humanity on this incredibly rich and abundant

and ultimately sustainable earth.

From Brian Mitchell. Evolution.

Responses and criticisms welcomed. Reply to my personal e-mail if you prefer. My

replies to criticisms will be posted.


"Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery; None but ourselves can free our

minds." (Bob Marley, Redemption song.)

"The most remarkable thing about the world is that you can understand it."


"I find television very educating. Every time somebody turns on the set I go

into the other room and read a book." (Groucho Marx.)

"Above all, always be capable of feeling deeply any injustice against anyone,

anywhere in the world." (Ernesto (Che) Guevara, in a letter to his children, a

few months before he was killed.)

"And if we were all capable of unity to make our blows stronger and infallible

and so increase the effectiveness of all kinds of support given to the

struggling people - how great and close would the future be." (Che Guevara.)

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

Reply | Forward | Messages in this Topic (1)

#729 From: "thomasina-kirby267@..."

Date: Thu Mar 2, 2006 3:47 am

Subject: This connect site is actually pretty good! thomasina-kirby267@...

Send Email Send Email

hey ppls just wanted to give u a helping hand if ur bored this week and just

feel like messing around and having a bit of fun online. this place here is where i hooked up with my girl, it's

pretty fun. recommend it to u all.

Reply | Forward | Messages in this Topic (1)

#730 From: "thomasina-kirby267@..."

Date: Sun Mar 12, 2006 12:46 am

Subject: Finding 'friends' Online? Read on thomasina-kirby267@...

Send Email Send Email

hey ppls just wanted to give u a helping hand if ur bored this week and just

feel like messing around and having a bit of fun online. this place here is where i hooked up with my girl, it's

pretty fun. recommend it to u all.

Reply | Forward | Messages in this Topic (1)

#731 From: "thomasina-kirby267@..."

Date: Thu Mar 23, 2006 6:34 pm

Subject: I found her here thomasina-kirby267@...

Send Email Send Email

I know some buddys who have met a few nice honey's off of this kind of thing

(here is the place they used: , but what do

ya think? I think it is mad cool from what I saw at my buddy’s house, and iam

thinking of signing up later today. Basically it's a regular personalssite,

but with an instant message and Webcams system built in. Basically you join

their chat-room on their site it gives you a link to those people online in the

chat-room, their location, their picture, etc and at one click you can start

chatting to them over Webcam (even if you don't have one). Pretty nifty stuff I


Reply | Forward | Messages in this Topic (2)

#732 From: "thomasina-kirby267@..."

Date: Mon Mar 27, 2006 3:30 am

Subject: I found her here thomasina-kirby267@...

Send Email Send Email

Wow, what a blast, what a trip actually. was kind of getting bored with the net,

was gonna get rid of my broadband and go back to 56k because i hardly used the

thing, and really, I didn't do anything much to need it. But last weekend i

found this crazy pickup thing, with webcmeras and all the gear. used to waste my

time trying to find gals on yahoo, but this place is like 100X easier. this is

the spot that made me decide to stick with my net for a bit longer . have fun, i did ;)

Reply | Forward | Messages in this Topic (2)

#733 From: "Michael OBrien"

Date: Thu Apr 20, 2006 2:34 pm

Subject: New Group warofguinnes...

Offline Offline

Send Email Send Email

I've just recently started the "Imperial Japanese Army Awareness

Committee" (IJAAC), and only VERY recently put up a yahoo! group

version of it sometime soon also:

The Japanese part in WWII doesn't get enough attention in WWII in my

opinion has never gotten enough attention other than mainland asia,

which is a shame for two reasons.

1. Ignored Holocaust in the East. 8.4 Million innocent Chinese men,

women, and children murdered (often raped). Korean women forced into

prostitution, Nanking Massacre, etc.

2. Lack of understanding of the average Japanese soldier, who was

complex, and often times despite common thought, as innocent as

anyone else who grew up during the Great Depression. Learning how

this is so however, often requires some real understanding though of

the Japanese Army and how it carried itself. The Japanese soldier

was NOT a subconscience fanatic as sometimes portrayed, but a human

being whom, as with all human beings, needs understanding.

It is difficult to analyze the Japanese soldier, but I'd like to end

this post with a quote from Yutaka Mio, who served as a Japanese

Army MP under commands from Unit 731, the most infamous of many

Japanese concentration camps (which there's more information about

on the group):

"It is so important to face the awful things and vow to work for


Reply | Forward | Messages in this Topic (1)

#734 From: "Brian Mitchell"

Date: Thu Aug 3, 2006 2:34 pm

Subject: Member's article: 61 Years Ago Today: The Real Reason For The Nuclear Bombing of Hiroshima evolutionnow...

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The Untaught Syllabus. 4.

History For Peace Activists:

In Their Own Words: The First Shots Of World War Three: Hiroshima And Nagasaki -

Us Atom Bomb Diplomacy - An Atomic Crime.

By Brian Mitchell.

The material for this article is taken from three of the author's books: "1917

And All That: The Untaught History Syllabus. In their Own Words - A Political

History Of The Cold War 1917-1983." which has also been partly serialised in

British and foreign journals, and which arose out of an unpublished (and at that

time unfinished) Ph.D. thesis; and "A Radical Book Of Enlightenment For The

Common Man." which is a compilation of over 1,700 radical political quotes in

subject and historical categories; and "Understanding The Hidden Nature Of

Capitalism. - Or Marx For Beginners." including Marx's full exposure of the

capitalist economic system. A fourth, non political, book is a comprehensive

computer guide for writers and authors.

And yes, it is extremely biased. But when did idealistic academic or

journalistic notions of being 'balanced' or 'unbiased' ever equate with veracity

or reality?

I challenge those who preach a so-called 'balanced' view to come up with a

negation of what is being said.

I am happy for this article to be reproduced and distributed in full provided

that authorship is acknowledged, or as quotations provided that the full

authorship of each quote is stated; and that the work is used for the purpose

for which it is obviously intended - to inform and educate those interested in

the modern history of wars, peace, anti-racism, poverty, imperialism, global

trade and exploitation and the world debt crisis; in other words, most of most

of humanity in this incredibly rich and abundant world.

The First Shots Of World War Three: Hiroshima And Nagasaki - Us Atom Bomb

Diplomacy - An Atomic Crime.



"The use of the atomic bomb cost us dearly; we are now branded with the mark of

the beast."

(New York Times military observer.)

61 years ago today the US dropped nuclear bombs on the Japanese cities of

Hiroshima (August 6 1945) and Nagasaki (August 9 1945) - targets which had no

militart significance whatever. Not only that, the US had ulterior geo-political

motives of showing the world their intention of global power domination.

"I cannot certify that this bomb brought us victory, but it is certain that it

hastened the end of the war. We know that in this way we saved the lives of

several thousand American and allied soldiers who would certainly have perished

if we had not used the bomb."

(US President Truman, Oct 3 1945.)

Were the 247,000 innocent human beings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki really burned

in order to hasten the end of the war and save the lives of several thousand

American and allied soldiers - as the US and many in Britain claimed ?

Not if you consider the words of US Major General C. Chennault:

"...the entry of the Soviet Union into the war (against Japan) was the decisive

factor that hastened the end of the war. Even if we had not used the bomb the

result would have been just the same."

(New York Times Aug 15 1945.)

Or US President Roosevelt, who had realised as early as 1943 that:

"With Russia as an ally in the war against Japan, the war can be terminated in

less time and at less expense in life and resources than if the reverse were the


(US President Roosevelt, in his Quebec Conference document "Russia's Position.")

Or US Secretary of State Stettinius:

"Without Russia it might cost the United States a million casualties to conquer


(US Secretary of State Stettinius )

Or American critics Norman Cousins and Thomas Finletter:

"Why did we drop the bomb? Or why didn't we try it out under the auspices of the

allied powers, to show its tremendous effectiveness, and on that basis, send an

ultimatum to Japan, and throw the responsibility on to the Japanese themselves?

Whatever the answer to that question, if the aim of the atomic bomb lay in the

fact that we had to beat Japan before the Soviet Union could take part in the

war (with Japan), no experiment could take place."

(Saturday Review, June 15 1946.)

Or General Groves, military director of the Manhattan project for the

manufacture of the first atomic bomb:

"There was never, from about two weeks from the time I took charge, any

illusions on my part, but that Russia was our enemy, and that the project was

carried out on that basis. I didn't go along with attitude of the whole country

that Russia was our gallant ally. I always had suspicions and the project was

conducted on that basis."

(General Groves, director of the Manhattan project.)

Or Professor Joseph Rotblatt:

"In March 1944 I experienced a disagreeable shock. In a casual conversation,

General Leslie Groves, the head of the Manhattan Project, said, "You realise, of

course, that the real purpose of making the bomb is to subdue our chief enemy,

the Russians!" Until then I thought that our work was to prevent a Nazi


(Professor Joseph Rotblatt, The Times July 17 1985.)

Or US Secretary of State Byrnes:

" wasn't necessary to use the bomb against the cities of Japan in order to

win the war but our possession and demonstration of the bomb would make the

Russians more manageable in Europe."

(US Secretary of State James Byrnes.)

Or British professor P.M.S Blackett:

"We conclude that the dropping of the atomic bomb was not so much the last

military act of the Second World War, as the first act of the cold diplomatic

war with the Russians."

(Prof. P. Blackett "The Military and Political Consequences of Atomic Energy.".)

Or even British Prime Minister Churchill:

"It would be a mistake to suppose that the fate of Japan was settled by the

atomic bomb. Her defeat was certain before the bomb fell."

(Winston Churchill "The Second World War.)

Churchill was one of those in on the beginning of the atomic bomb plans. And at

the time he helped to propagate the myth:

"It is to this atomic bomb more than to any other factor that we may ascribe the

sudden and speedy ending of the war against Japan."

(British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, House of Commons, Aug 17 1945.)

Or US Secretary for War Henry Stimson, who wrote in his diary that the atomic

bomb was: "to persuade Russia to play ball" and:

"The necessity of bringing Russian orgn. into the fold of Christian

civilisation... The possible use of S1 [the code name for the atom bomb B.M.] to

accomplish this."

(From US Secretary for War Henry Stimson's notes after talks with President


"Russian entry will have a profound military effect in that almost certainly it

will materially shorten the war and thus save American lives,"

(US Secretary for War Henry Stimson.)

Or Eisenhower (later US President); when told by US Secretary for War Henry

Stimson that nuclear weapons were to be used on Japan:

"I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan

was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary...

Japan was at that very moment seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss

of face."

(Dwight D. Eisenhower.)

And later:

"It wasn't necessary to hit them with that awful thing."


The Allied powers had agreed at Yalta that the Soviet Union would enter the war

against Japan on land in Manchuria three months after the Germans were defeated

in Europe. This was to give the USSR time to move the Red Army half way around

the world. The German surrender was on May 8 1945, so the date for the Soviet

attack was to be August 8 1945, which they kept exactly to the day. Churchill

called this:

"...another example of the fidelity and punctuality with which Marshal Stalin

and his valiant armies always kept their military engagements."

(Winston Churchill, House of Commons.)

But the US wanted Japan to capitulate to US occupying forces rather than Soviet.

There was no time to test the atomic bomb elsewhere, even though Kure, a

military target, was only 20 miles away, but was already damaged by conventional

bombing and therefore would not be suitable for an "experiment." So Hiroshima,

an undamaged target full of innocent civilian guinea pigs, was chosen for the

"experiment" on August 6 1945.

"It seems clear that, even without the atom bomb attacks, air supremacy over

japan could have exerted sufficient pressure to bring unconditional surrender

and obviate the need for invasion... Based on a detailed investigation of all

the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders

involved, it is the survey's opinion that certainly prior to December 31, 1945

Japan would have surrendered even if the atom bomb had not been dropped, even if

Russia had not entered the war, and even if no invasion had been planned or


(US Strategic Bombing Survey 4, The Summary Report on the Pacific War.)

"There was not enough time between 16 July when we knew at New Mexico that the

bomb would work, and 8 August, the Russian deadline date, for us to have set up

the very complicated machinery of a test atomic bombing involving time-consuming

problems of area preparations, etc... No, any test would have been impossible if

the purpose was to knock Japan out before Russia came in - or at least before

Russia could make anything other than a token of participation prior to a

Japanese collapse."

(Thomas K. Finletter, Chairman of US Air Policy Committee.)

"The Americans had no bombs to waste. Apart from the static apparatus... There

were just two bearing the names "The Thin Man" and "The Fat Man"."

(US historian W. Manchester, in "The Glory and the Dream.")

No bombs to waste; the "Fat Man" and the "Thin Man" had to be tested on live

people and the Soviets had to be kept in their place.

Japan was already effectively defeated and had already offered to surrender. The

Japanese had asked the Soviet Union to mediate in surrender terms and peace

negotiations as early as March 1945.

It had been decided to use the atom bomb on Japan as early as the beginning of

July 1945; and Japan's offer of surrender on July 22 1945 was therefore


"...the decision to use the atomic weapon against Japan was taken at the

beginning of July, 1945. The first atomic bomb was dropped on August 6 and the

offer of peace made by Japan on July 22 was not accepted till August 10."

(British Prime Minister Attlee, in News Chronicle, Dec 5 1946.)

The US were again informed on July 28 at Potsdam, before the bomb was used, that

Japan was prepared to surrender:

Stalin:"I want to inform you that we, the Russian delegation, have received a

new proposal from Japan... [Japan's note on mediation was then read out in

English B.M.] ... Japan is offering to cooperate with us. We intend to reply to

them in the same spirit as last time."

Truman:"We do not object."

Attlee:"We agree."

(At Potsdam Conference, July 28 1945)

The Japanese also helped propagate the myth that the bomb forced them to

surrender by omitting to announce their surrender offers to the Soviets:

"Already the governing classes, headed by the Emperor, are desperately trying to

'save their face' by ascribing defeat to the atomic bomb, conveniently

forgetting their request to Russia to mediate with the Allies before the atomic

bomb was used...

The assertion that the new American bombs brought the Japanese war to an end is

a myth. As we know, weeks before the appearance of the atom bombs, the Emperor

Hirohito had already asked Stalin to mediate; thus openly admitting defeat. In

reality Japan had been brought down by the interruption of her sea

communications by Anglo-American sea power and the danger of a Soviet thrust

across manchuria cutting off the Japanese armies in Asia from home."

(The Times Aug 16 1945.)

"The entry into the war of the Soviet Union this morning puts us in an utterly

hopeless situation and makes further continuation of the war impossible."

(Japanese Prime Minister Kantaro Suzuki, Aug 9 1945.)

Why the rush to use the bomb?:

"We wanted to get through the Japanese phase of the war before the Russians came


(US Secretary of State James Byrnes.)

Churchill knew about the US atom bomb plans. But they were kept secret from the

USSR. When it was decided eventually to tell Stalin Churchill showed nothing but

deceitfulness and contempt for a loyal ally:

"Still, he had been a magnificent ally in the war against Hitler, and we both

[and Truman] felt that he must be informed of the great New Fact which now

dominated the scene, but not with any particulars."

(Winston Churchill "The Second World War.")

"I am in entire agreement with the President that the secrets of the atomic bomb

shall, so far as is possible, not be imparted to any other country in the world.

So far as we know there are at least three and perhaps four years before the

concrete progress made in the United States can be overtaken."

(Winston Churchill, Aug 16 1945.)

The last thing the US wanted was for Japan to capitulate to the USSR. The US

also did not want the Japanese people to have the opportunity to opt for


"Anxious as we were to have Russia in the war against Japan, the experience at

Potsdam now made me determined that I would not allow the Russians any part in

the control of Japan... force is the only thing that the Russians understand."

(US President Truman, in his diary, July 1945.)

"It is quite clear that the US do not at the present time desire Russian

participation in the war against Japan."

(Churchill, to Eden.)

"[It is] now no longer necessary for the Russians to come into the Japanese war;

the new explosive alone was sufficient to settle the matter. Furthermore, we now

had something in our hands which would redress the balance with the Russians...

[Churchill could now say to the USSR B.M.:] If you insist on doing this or that,

well... [the "well" and a pause meant an atom bomb B.M.] And then where are the


(Churchill's Chief of Staff in the war Field Marshal Lord Alan Brooke, talking

about Churchill, in his war diaries.)

"We should not need the Russians. The end of the Japanese war no longer depended

on the pouring in of their armies... We had no need to ask favours of them... I

minuted to Mr. Eden: 'It is quite clear that the United States do not at the

present time desire Russian participation in the war against Japan'."

(Winston Churchill, in "The Second World War.")

This fear of Japan becoming socialist is even more apparent when you consider

that Japan's and Germany's war debts and reparations were not only waived but

millions of dollars of US capital as "Marshall Aid" was pumped into these

countries, as well as Britain and the rest of Western Europe. This also helped

to prevent the possibility that these nations might have "gone communist".

"If the bomb was dropped in a desperate hurry on August 6, it must have been

because Truman was determined to drop it before the Russians had entered the

war... But that was not all: the bomb, as is so clearly suggested by Truman,

Byrnes, Stimson and others, was dropped very largely in order to impress Russia

with America's great might. Ending the war in Japan was incidental (the end of

this war was clearly in sight anyway), but stopping the Russians in Asia and

checking them in Eastern Europe was fundamental."

(British historian Alexander Werth "Russia At War.")

"The bomb might well put us in a position to dictate our own terms at the end of

the war."

(US Secretary of State James Byrnes.)

The human cost of the US trying to obtain a political position where it could

dictate its own terms was right from the start played down and hidden from view

by the US; while subjecting the human and physical remnants and survivors of the

bomb to tests to assess the effects of nuclear bombing. Medical tests were

conducted by the US not for the benefit of the Japanese victims, but purely for

US military experiments. Let no one be fooled by attempts to play down the

effects of nuclear bombing, such as radiation effects, which last for


"I am an atomic bomb survivor (Hibakusha) from Hiroshima.

On August 6, 1945, forty-two years ago, an A-bomb was dropped on Hiroshima by

the USA. The bomb, containing only 1 Kilogram of uranium but equal in power to

13,000 tons of TNT, fell on Hiroshima with a bomb blast faster than sound and

with heat rays exceeding 2,000 degrees centigrade on the ground within a radius

of 600 meters. In an instant it blew down buildings, houses and people in

Hiroshima, destroying everything...

On the ground, numberless people had fallen, groaning or crying for water,

without anyone to help them. The neighbourhood was so full of agonising cries,

it was hell on earth.

That same day, some 9,000 12-year-old schoolboys were also engaged in work in

the city, under the national mobilisation law. In the instant of the A-bomb

explosion, most of them were charred to death. Those who narrowly escaped being

killed were left naked, their clothes burnt off. With their blistering skin

peeling, they tottered about in the sea of fire, and plunged into the river.

When they looked up from the water, they had already lost their sight. Embracing

each other by the shoulder, red and stripped of skin, they were washed away

toward the sea, crying "Mama, help!" The bodies washed toward the sea on the

seven rivers running through the city, turning the river surface dark, have

never been recovered.

Even if the cry, "Mama, help!" had reached their mothers, who could have helped

them in that "hell"? The hell, in which you could not save even your own

children, that is A-bombing.

People who survived the bombing, and those who entered the city to search for

relatives or help victims were struck down by radiation and died after losing

their hair and bleeding.

Three days later, on August 9, another A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. The two

A-bombs completely destroyed the two cities, massacring the people without


A-bombings allow us neither to live nor die as human beings. A-bombs are...

basically intended for total destruction... which we human beings must never

allow to exist.

After the end of World War II, the US occupational forces and the Japanese

government tried to conceal the real condition of Hiroshima and Nagasaki from

the public by suppressing all reports on the damage of these two cities caused

by the A-bombs. This caused delay in relief work for victims and prevented the

effects of nuclear war from being known to the world as well as formation of

international opinion for the banning of nuclear weapons...

We do not want anyone to ever again go through the pain of nuclear war which we

were made to suffer. "Never make hibakusha again" - this is our hibakusha's

heart-felt desire. This is our wish to which we are determined to devote our

lives. For that purpose, we must prevent nuclear war and eliminate nuclear

weapons entirely...

Japan formerly invaded our neighbouring Asian countries and did them serious


Japanese women have been widening the range of their movements for the

protection of peace and life, with the slogans:

"Mothers who give birth to life also wish to nurture and protect life" and "Let

us join hands so as to make no more Hibakusha."

(Sakao Ito, NIHON HIDANKYO Japan Confederation of A- and H-Bomb Sufferers

Organisations, in Women of the Whole World, journal of the Women's International

Democratic Federation.)

Japanese women's horrific tales of the bombing have made 12 volumes collected by

the women's peace committee of the Buddhist organisation Soka Gakkai. One of the

stories is of Mayumi Yoshida; the long extract shows many aspects of life and

what conditions and government attitudes in the West are likely to be after a

nuclear bombing:

"I have written this for the sake of my older sister, Yuriko, who has suffered a

fate more cruel than death. I have written in the hope that no other children

like Yuriko are born into this world.

Yuriko is one of twenty-two cases of severe microcephaly caused in foetuses

whose mothers were exposed at close range to radiation from the atomic bomb. She

limps because both pelvic joints are dislocated. She has a speech disorder. Her

body is the size of a middle-school pupil, though she is thirty-six. Her mental

abilities are arrested at the level of a two-year-old... She is incapable of

taking a bath, going to the toilet, or doing anything else unassisted.

Yuriko smiles when she is happy and pouts when she is displeased...

Television movies are her greatest joy...

Why has she been condemned to such a condition? Life is given equally to all.

Who was it that twisted and deformed my sister's life this way?

On the day of the bombing, Mother was happily anticipating Yuriko's birth. But,

then, in a flash of fiendish light, the bomb invaded even the sanctity of the

womb and led a mother, an unborn daughter, a whole family down a long path of


Mother... had her baby boy, Masaaki, strapped to her back... she was temporary

blinded by a sudden flash of light... the buildings and the fifty workers who

had been there just seconds earlier had vanished. Mother saw an immense fire...

Before long a drizzle of black rain began falling...

Mother took Masaaki down from her back, only to find that virtually countless

slivers of glass were buried in his bloody head...

Mother fell ill a few weeks later...

No one knew of atomic-radiation sickness... On August 29 Masaaki died, but his

name is not listed among the atomic bomb victims since the cause of death was

reported as gastric obstruction...

The child growing in her womb was some consolation for Masaaki's death.

It was five or six years before her death that Mother began complaining of

pains... This was the beginning of her struggle with the monster known as

atomic-radiation sickness...

One day, when Yuriko was sitting next to her watching television, Mother

stretched out her thin arm and took her by the hand. Laying it on her side, she

said, "Yuriko, it hurts here. Rub my side for a little while, won't you?" There

were tears in her eyes.

"Is it very bad Mother - " I started to speak to her but stopped midway,

realising that the tears were caused not by physical pain but by love and worry

for a child that would be left behind...

[Yuriko B.M.] was born... apparently a perfectly healthy baby

Yuriko's first and second birthdays passed. My parents' third daughter was born,

and still Yuriko neither spoke nor walked... But when her younger sister was

already prattling and toddling about, Yuriko still showed no signs of


They went on hoping that one day she would speak and walk normally...

Worried about what would happen to Yuriko after their deaths, Mother and Father

once sent a letter to the United States government by way of the American

commander of the Iwakuni Air Force Installation, hoping to make arrangements to

ensure Yuriko's livelihood. The Japanese government had passed a nominal law

related to medical treatment for atom-bomb victims but showed no inclination to

aid them financially. This is why Mother and Father decided to apply to the

nation responsible for the bombing. Their request was shelved without action...

In June 1968 Yuriko was at last officially recognised as an atomic-bomb victim.

In the hope that it would help the drive to outlaw nuclear weapons, each August

6 Mother and Father took Yuriko to the site of bombing and passed out

leaflets... Some of the people to whom I handed the leaflets looked annoyed and

immediately threw the leaflets away...

In the middle of December, Mother had grown weaker and could no longer see out

of her left eye.

About three days before her death, the attacks of excruciating pain abated, and

she grew so tranquil that we were unable to tell the exact time of her death...

Before the end she frequently said that she had gone on living because of

Yuriko. But at last her determination and strength were exhausted. I shall never

forget watching Yuriko, who did not understand what death meant, sitting beside

Mother and murmuring, "Momma sleep, Momma sleep."

On January 4 of the next year, Father received a letter saying that, though

Yuriko had been recognised as an atom-bomb victim, Mother was not: she had not

been sufficiently examined. The letter was dated December 25, 1978, the day

before her death... This letter symbolises the heartlessness of government

policy in dealing with atom-bomb victims.

Now, sitting alone with Father, Yuriko points to Mother's photograph and says

over and over again, "Momma dead, Momma dead." Like a clock stopped forever at

8.15, the moment the bomb fell... She and all others like her show how the

misery of that abysmal moment persists into the future. All the millions of

words spoken and written in the name of peace are necessary, but people should

come to see my sister and hear her murmur, "Momma dead, Momma dead.""

(From "People Should Come to see my Sister." Mayumi Yoshida. Soka Gakkai

Buddhist organisation, Japan.)

Victims of the US atomic crime; not only were the people of Hiroshima and

Nagasaki 'liberated' from the choice of opting for socialism or capitalism by

being burnt alive; but more importantly: they were the expendable guinea pigs in

the first military acts of the Cold War.

British school and college history syllabus teaching and books do not contain

this information.

All the material and information I have presented here is readily available to

historians, writers, journalists, teachers, educators and syllabus publishers.

Although I have spent many hundreds of hours gathering it all together, I did

not have to look very far to find any of it.

Most people think British education is among the best in the world. It isn't. It

never has been. From before and right through the industrial revolution, the

British ruling class has always feared an educated working class. When it was

proposed to build free libraries for working people a century ago, Lord

Salisbury said: "They don't want libraries; give them a circus."

Now we have an education circus. It means that you can get away with teaching

about the Nazis or Apartheid on a superficial level, because these historical

eras are too well known. But if you ventured seriously and treated them with any

depth revealing the whole story, including British complicity and support for

Nazism and Apartheid, and seriously investigated most other such events in

history, you soon learn that you would be progressively marginalized,

criticised, then ostracised, left out of career improvements or promotion, and

get a sense of the unspoken threat of not being able to pay the mortgage and

bills supporting a teacher's lifestyle.

When as a trainee history lecturer, it was suggested I take the class on a trip

to the Tower of London and then set them an essay on what life was like for a

soldier in King Charles' Army centuries ago. Very useful knowledge that! A

sociology of the past perhaps? But certainly not history in its most important

sense; unless history is to mean anything old or 'interesting' that you might do

in evening classes, like antiques, flower arranging or basket weaving. When

instead I taught real history, learning from the past in order to change the

future - the collective life-experience of humanity, I was got rid of. The head

of the history department complained that the students had remarked that I made

them think; which the head of history had probably never done in a lifetime of

teaching. I ended up washing and cleaning and emptying surgical and clinical

waste in a hospital.

Unless teachers learn to be brave and intellectually honest (difficult when they

have a mortgage and bills to pay), future historical, social and economic

education and popular 'knowledge' will also not refer to the US or British

history and capitalism's continuing complicity in global plunder, exploitation,

domination and control, wars of aggrandisement and acquisition, causing the

deaths and devastation of the homes and lands of millions of people - the

thousands of children under the age of two who will die tonight through simple

lack of food, clean water, medicine and education - the untold millions of

unnecessary deaths among the overwhelming majority of humanity on this

incredibly rich and abundant and ultimately sustainable earth.

From Brian Mitchell. Evolution.

Responses and criticisms welcomed. Reply to my personal e-mail if you prefer. My

replies to criticisms will be posted.


"Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery; None but ourselves can free our

minds." (Bob Marley, Redemption song.)

"The most remarkable thing about the world is that you can understand it."


"I find television very educating. Every time somebody turns on the set I go

into the other room and read a book." (Groucho Marx.)

"Above all, always be capable of feeling deeply any injustice against anyone,

anywhere in the world." (Ernesto (Che) Guevara, in a letter to his children, a

few months before he was killed.)

"And if we were all capable of unity to make our blows stronger and infallible

and so increase the effectiveness of all kinds of support given to the

struggling people - how great and close would the future be." (Che Guevara.)

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

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#735 From: "Brian Mitchell"

Date: Thu Sep 21, 2006 1:15 pm

Subject: Chapters 45 - 48. 1917 AND ALL THAT: THE UNTAUGHT HISTORY SYLLABUS. In Their Own Words: A Political History Of The Cold War 1917-1983 evolutionnow...

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In Their Own Words: A Political History Of The Cold War 1917-1983.

By Brian Mitchell.

Chapters 45 - 48 of 50.

Chapter 45



"During these months of the "phoney war" British Government departments issued

licences for the re-export of spruce from Britain to the Caprioni firm in Italy.

We were short of spruce ourselves; it comes from across the Atlantic. Our

merchant seamen risked or lost their lives to bring it to Britain; we needed it

for training planes, and we could have made Mosquito bombers' wing-spars from it

- if anyone had allowed de Havilland to make bombers at all at that period. The

Italians did make Caprioni wing-spars from it. And less than a year after the

issue of these licences, some Caprionis were bombing London!"

(Tom Wintringham (Gracchus) "Your M.P.") (1)

Even throughout the war it was business as usual with transnational capital.

Business was 'laundered' through subsidiaries of US-German companies and banks

set up through other temporary subsidiaries and mergers to disguise their German

connections, shareholdings, ownerships and directorships. Gold bars made from

the wedding rings, spectacle frames and teeth of concentration camp victims were

passed through the Bank for International Settlements in Basle, Switzerland; a

Nazi controlled bank whose President was American Thomas H. McKittrick, and

whose executive staff were German, British, Japanese, Italian and American.

When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 he had immediately appointed Hjalmar

Schacht as Head of the Reichsbank and Nazi Representative at the BIS.

It was his consummate skill at swindling the people which made him


(Adolf Hitler, of Hjalmar Schacht.)

The BIS Board of Directors list of June 16 1943 included Walter Funk (Berlin),

Montague Collet Norman (London), Kurt von Schroeder (Cologne), and Yoneji

Yamamoto (Japan).

When in March 1938 the Nazis entered Vienna, Austria's gold went to the BIS, and

from the BIS to the Reichbank. In March 1939 the Nazis entered Prague and

demanded that the Czech National Bank hand over Czechoslovakia's $48 million

gold reserves. The Czech directors announced that the gold had already gone to

the BIS for forwarding to the Bank of England. (2)

On May 15 1939 Labour MP George Strauss asked the Prime Minister Neville


"Is it true, sir, that the national treasure of Czechoslovakia is being given to


The Prime Minister, who was a major shareholder in ICI, partner of IG-Farben,

who had members on the board of the BIS, replied:

"It is not." (3)

The British Prime Minister had denied that the national treasures of

Czechoslovakia had gone to Germany. But as was disclosed later, the actual gold

did not need to physically have been moved in order to be transferred to Berlin,

but by adjusting the accounts of the Bank of England's gold deposits in

Switzerland and Czech bank holdings in London. In 1944 it was discovered that

most of the BIS's dividends were going to Germany. (4)

"This country has various rights and interests in the BIS under our

international trust agreements between the various governments. It would not be

in our best interest to sever connections with the bank."

(British Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir Kingsley Wood, in reply to questioning

by George Strauss.) (5)

(1)Gracchus "Your M.P." Victor Gollancz. London 1944.

(2)See:Charles Higham "Trading With the Enemy." Robert Hale. London 1983.

(3)See:Charles Higham "Trading With the Enemy." Robert Hale. London 1983.

(4)See:Charles Higham "Trading With the Enemy." Robert Hale. London 1983.

(5)See:Charles Higham "Trading With the Enemy." Robert Hale. London 1983.

Other business was done through the Morgan and Chase National banks and

Rockefeller. Ford trucks supplied the German army. General Motors (Opel), and

Ford built the largest percentage of medium and heavy trucks used by the

Wehrmacht. Most of the engines for Ju 88 bombers and the first Me-262 fighters

were built at Opel plants with General Motors capital. Standard Oil supplied the

German army in France with fuel through Switzerland. Standard Oil was refuelling

German U-Boats in the Canary Islands. Standard Oil's Panama registered ships

were not touched by the German U-Boats during this operation. ITT helped with

Hitler's communications, were involved in the rocket bombs which fell on London,

and built Focke Wulf planes. American ball bearings needed by the Allies were

'laundered' through Latin American subsidiaries for German heavy armaments with

the cooperation of the Vice Chairman of the US War Production Board. (1)

"On January 6th, 1944, the United States Government indicted the Du Pont and

Imperial Chemical Industries of Britain for forming a cartel with IG-Farben of

Germany and Mitsui of Japan. Other big firms followed suit - for instance

Standard Oil, which under cartel agreement with the German IG-Farben, blocked

commercial development of one hundred octane gasoline in the US and withheld

technical information from Army Air Corps; or Dow Chemical and Aluminium

Corporation of America, which as a result of an arrangement with IG-Farben

restricted the production of aluminium in the US with the effect that in 1940,

one year after the outbreak of the Second World War, while the USA produced

5,680 tons Nazi Germany produced more than 19,000 tons.

Most Americans were left in the dark..."

(Avro Manhattan "The Dollar and the Vatican.") (2)

Other US companies which were members of Nazi cartels and trusts were the Agfa

Ansco Corporation, the Aluminium Company of America, the American Cynamid

Company, Bell and Howell, the Carbide and Carbon Chemical Corporation, the

National Aniline and Chemical Company, the Dow Chemical Company, the Eastman

Kodak Company, the Goodyear Tyre and Rubber Company, and Proctor and Gamble. The

company that had cartel arrangements with the largest number of US companies,

which included Standard Oil, Du Pont, and the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation, was

the IG-Farben trust. (3)

(1)See:Charles Higham "Trading With the Enemy." Robert Hale. London 1983.

Also:"Recalling the Past For the Sake of the Future: The Causes, Results and

Lessons of World War Two." Novosti. Moscow 1985.

And:US 5th Corps War Department document 2267, July 15 1941.

And:A.C.Sutton "Wall Street

And:Guenter Reimann "Patents for Hitler." Victor Gollancz. London 1945.

And:A. Kahn "High Treason. The Plot Against the People." The Hour Publishers. NY


(2)Avro Manhattan "The Dollar and the Vatican." Pioneer Press. London 1957.

(3)See:A. Kahn "High Treason. The Plot Against the People." The Hour Publishers.

NY 1950.

IG-Farben, with a total value of over £300,000,000, thirteen percent of whos

capital was foreign owned - mainly by Du Pont of the US, ICI of Britain, and

Francolor of France, was the world's biggest chemical combine. IG-Farben's

holdings outside Germany amounted to at least another £50,000,000.

"By some miraculous chance - and one day this may form a profitable theme for an

investigation commission - most of I.G Farben plants were spared during the war.

If one starts with the enormous I.G. Farben headquarters building in Frankfurt -

now the headquarters of Anglo-American occupation authorities - one would think

a magic circle had been drawn around I.G. Farben establishments to save them

from Allied bombers. The I.G. Farben building in Frankfurt, covering several

acres of ground... By its size, shape and location on top of a small hill, it

stands out as Number 1 target in Frankfurt, whether for high or low level

bombing. But it survived without a scratch..."

(Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett, in his book "Cold War In Germany.")

German subsidiaries of US companies were compensated for damage done by American

bombing to their property. The US Government awarded General Motors $33 million

tax exemption on profits for the US bombing of its motor and aircraft factories

in Germany in the war. (1)

(1)See:Charles Higham "Trading With the Enemy." Robert Hale. London 1983.

Chapter 46


"Both the President and Eden agreed that, under any circumstances, Germany must

be divided into several states."

(Harry Hopkins.) (1)

"If you had a unified Germany it would be owned by the Russians."

(US historian Steven Ambrose, Channel 4 TV May 24 1987.)

It was the West who wanted a divided Germany.

While publicly presenting a policy for a united Germany the West did everything

possible to ensure that Germany was divided.

As early as the Teheran conference in 1943 the US proposed dividing Germany into

five small independent states; which would thus be harmless and easy for US

capital to dominate. In 1944 Churchill and Eden went to Moscow with a plan to

divide Germany into three parts. Stalin flatly refused.

The Soviets never wanted Germany to be divided. The Soviet view was that it was

not the German people but the Nazis and their financial and industrial

capitalist backers and supporters who were to blame for the war and it was they

who should be punished and pay reparations; it was they who should be broken up,

not the German nation. Throughout the war Stalin refused to identify the Nazis

with the German people. Even in February 1942, when the Nazis were at the gates

of Moscow and surrounded Leningrad, he said in a speech:

"It would be ridiculous to identify the Hitler clique with the German people,

with the German State. The experience of history teaches us that Hitlers come

and go, but the German people, the German State, remains."

(Stalin, Feb 1942.)

And after the war Stalin opposed any policy which would destroy or divide

Germany and thus punish the German people:

"Three years ago Hitler publicly stated that his task included the dismemberment

of the Soviet Union and the severance from it of the Caucasus, the Ukraine,

Byelorussia, the Baltic and other regions. He definitely said, "We shall destroy

Russia so that she shall never rise again." This was three years ago. But

Hitler's insane ideas were fated to remain unrealised - the course of the war

scattered them to the winds like dust. Actually, the very opposite of what the

Hitlerites dreamed of in their delirium occurred. Germany is utterly defeated...

The Soviet Union is triumphant, although it has no intention of either

dismembering or destroying Germany."

(Stalin, May 9 1945.)

At Potsdam the Soviets proposed the setting up of a central German

administration for political and economic unity. This was rejected by the US and


In dividing Germany the West broke another Potsdam agreement, a Soviet proposal,

that Germany should remain a single economic unit under the control of the

German people. The Soviets also proposed the withdrawal of all occupational

troops and let Germany be run by the German people. Fearing that a people

released from living under fascism will invariably opt for socialism, this also

was rejected by the Western Allies.

In Paris, Moscow and London Molotov consistently proposed the establishment of a

provisional government of all political parties and trade unions in all four

occupation zones followed by an all German constitution with secret elections by

proportional representation to an all German government of the German people,

(1)Foreign Relations of the United States, 1943, Vol.III.

supervised by four-power observers. Bourgeois democracy could certainly not have

complained about that; since in no way could it have been dominated by

communists, since the Soviet zone had only 18 million out of Germany's 67

million population. Fearing that the whole German people might vote for the

Communists, the West rejected all these proposals.

A unified Germany under terms of the Potsdam Treaty would put Germany under the

control of the German people and give them the opportunity to opt for socialism.

To the twisted thinking of the West this meant "giving it to the Russians." The

West greatly feared a communist Germany:

"The first question is whether Germany will turn Communist...

Manifestly, then, if we wish to make any effort to prevent Germany from going

Communist we, along with Great Britain and France, are impelled to exert every

effort to breathe new life into Germany's prostrate economy by integrating it as

a prospering element, into our own...

...if the people of western Germany became convinced that Communism offered the

best means of unity, the majority of them would become Communist."

(US Government Memo "Future Policy Towards Germany," March 26 1946.) (1)

The West was so afraid of the possibility of Germany becoming communist that

they staged a repeat of the Zinoviev letter incident. A letter known as

"Protocol M", written in pseudo-Marxist language and calling for strikes and

"liberation of the world proletariat", was "released" by British Intelligence

onto the British and world press. Repressions against Communists and closures of

Communist newspapers followed immediately as eagerly as those of the Nazis, and

left-wing books banned by the Nazis were also banned by the West. Three months

later it was admitted in the House of Commons that "Protocol M" was a fake.

The Soviet view was that a divided Germany would always be dangerous to world

security, since sooner or later along could come another Bismark or Hitler to

"re-unite" Germany. The ideas of US military commander of Germany General Clay,

and the modern German and US revanchists are examples of this.

A divided Germany enabled US forces to intervene and put down any socialist

transformation if the German people had any thoughts of 'going communist', which

they could not have done if the whole of Germany was under joint control with

the Soviets.

A divided Germany enabled separate peace treaties to be made by the West which

they could not make with a unified Germany under the terms of the Potsdam treaty

because of the influence of the USSR. Separate peace treaties paved the way for

West Germany to be incorporated into NATO.

A divided Germany enabled US monopoly capital to dominate a seperated West

German state, whereas they could not have dominated a unified Germany under the

joint East-West supervision terms of the Potsdam agreement. A divided Germany

enabled US monopoly capital to dominate West German heavy industry and restore

the power of the cartels and multi-nationals; which would become part of the

foundations of the European Common Market and part of the formation of NATO -

both as an anti-Soviet alliance; and both of which they could not have done in a

unified Germany under the terms of the Potsdam Treaty.

(1)See:W.W. Rostow "The Division of Europe After World War II: 1946." University

of Texas Press. 1982.

A divided Germany also presented for the US a possible future starting point for

the cause of another war against communism:

"The hell of it is that the State Department is always six months behind us.

They have only just now accepted our demand to set up a separate West German

state. We have been all set to go on that for more than six months... Now

they've accepted the idea of a separate state, of course, we're ready to go

ahead with the Peace Statute. With the Peace Statute signed, we can make Germany

an ally. We'll have a seventeenth nation in the Marshall plan with its

heavy industry and 44 million more people on our side... We're losing precious

time. We should be all set to go in another few months... of course we'll be

ready to go. I should say we'll be ready to go. As a matter of fact, one of my

last jobs has been drawing up a paper on our occupation policy for the Soviet


(Richard Scammon, US Military Government, Berlin, 1947.) (1)

The capitalist world's desire to destroy communism becomes even more obvious

when you consider that the USSR, our ally in the war against German Fascism, was

denied membership of NATO; while Germany, who had just attempted to take over

the whole of Europe - East and West, was immediately welcomed with open arms as

a friend and ally in NATO:

"First of all we should see that Germany is firmly tied into the other nations

of Western Europe and become a full partner in the North Atlantic Pact [NATO

B.M.]. The importance of this cannot be overemphasised... The Shuman plan offers

a real assurance in this direction."

(New York Herald Tribune Oct 27 1950.)

The formation of NATO by the West was a direct violation of the Potsdam Treaty:

"Each High Contracting Party undertakes not to conclude any alliance and not to

take part in any coalition directed against the other High Contracting Party."

(From the Potsdam Treaty.)

NATO was formed in 1949, just after the Soviet Union had demobilised 8.5 million

of its armed forces. NATO was created solely as an anti-Communist military

alliance. The Warsaw Pact was formed six years after NATO.

Plans for rearming Germany, against the Potsdam Treaty, were in the making

despite the deceiptful and naive statements of US and British politicians.

"There is no intention to rearm Germany."

(US Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson, Nov 1949.)

"We are all against German rearmament."

(Ernest Bevin, House of Parliament, summer 1950.)

However, there is a power far higher than a British Labour Foreign Secretary:

"Mr. Bevin went to New York, determined to prevent the precipitate rearmament of

Germany... He failed... Faced with an American ultimatum... he toed the line."

(New Statesman and Nation, Dec 2 1950.)

"I have discussed the whole thing with Monty and he fully shares my view that we

must get a German army as soon as possible. Some dumb politicians are against

it, but they won't be much longer."

(Commander in Chief of the British Army on the Rhine Sir Charles Keightley, at

the Press Club, Berlin, June 1950.) 2)

As part of NATO and against the Potsdam Treaty, and away from public view, West

Germany again rearmed; just as it did in the 1930s:

(1)See:Wilfred Burchett "Cold War in Germany." Melbourne. 1950.

(2)See:Gordon Schaffer "German Rearmament Leads to War." British Peace

Committee. London 1951.

"It is the great merit of the entire German military economy that in those bad

years it did not remain inactive, even if, for understandable reasons, its

activities were hidden from the public. In years of quiet work the scientific

and practical requisites were created so that the German Wehrmacht could resume

work without loss of time and experience at the given hour... Only due to this

work of the German enterprises, which was shrouded in silence... was it possible

immediately after 1933 to find speedy solutions to the new tasks of rearming,

could the many new problems be mastered."

(Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, in a speech at the University of Berlin in

Jan 1944.) (1)

And for the British, in typical contradictory British logic, that was fine, just

as it was in the 1930s:

"I do not consider that the repeal of the disarmament dispositions of the

various peace treaties would in actual face lead to an increase in arms. On the

contrary, I believe that the announcement of the German rearmament programme

brings new hope of a general limitation of arms by all countries."

(Winston Churchill's son-in-law, Foreign Office official Duncan Sandys, Nov 2

1935.) (2)

Even before the war had ended it was decided by the West that post-war Germany

should again be the bulwark against communism:

#"Back to War Office to have an hour with Secretary of State discussing post-war

policy in Europe. Should Germany be dismembered or converted into an ally to

meet the Russian threat of twenty years hence? I suggested the latter and feel

certain that we must, from now onwards, regard Germany in a very different

light. Germany is no longer the dominating power in Europe - Russia is.

Therefore, foster Germany, gradually build her up and bring her into a

federation of Western Europe. [Forerunner of the EEC. B.M.] Unfortunately, this

must all be done under the cloak of our policy of a holy alliance between

England, Russia and America, not an easy policy and one requiring a super

Foreign Secretary."

#(British Chief of Staff Field Marshal Sir (later Lord) Alan Brooke, in his

diary, July 27 1944.) (3)

In 1945, under personal pressure from the King and Churchill, and against even

Attlee's choice, which was to be Hugh Dalton, Ernest Bevin was installed as that

"super Foreign Secretary".

About NATO Bevin had said:

"This pact is a powerful defensive arrangement, it is not directed against


(British Labour Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin.)

Italy's Fascist Foreign Minister Ciano had said the same before the war about

the Anti-Comintern Pact:

(1)See:The Brown Book - War and Nazi Criminals in West Germany. Verlag Zeit im

Bild. Dresden.

See also: The Nuremberg War Trials Documents.

(2)See:Koni Zilliacus "Can the Tories Win the Peace? And How They Lost the Last

One." Victor Gollancz. London 1945.

#(3)See:Arthur Bryant "Triumph in the West." London 1959.

Quoted in: V.Trukhanovsky "Winston Churchill." Progress Publishers. Moscow


"The pact has no hidden aims. It is directed against no one."

(Italy's Foreign Minister Ciano, talking about the pre war Anti-Comintern Pact.)

All that was needed then, and capital has been trying to conjure one up in

people's minds ever since, was to create a situation of conflict in order to

start a war with the Soviet Union and the Socialist world:

"Inasmuch as the Russians appear to be achieving great success with the peace,

and are unlikely to gain more by war, the conflict will have to be of our

making, sparked off by some event, either in Berlin or elsewhere in Europe,

where Russia and the West may come into conflict."

#(Monetary Times, Nov 1948.)

As we shall see in other parts of this book; further attempts to create

situations of potential conflict were made later in Hungary and Czechoslovakia

as well as the GDR and Poland.

The same policy was still in operation over 20 years later:

"The new policy will be to fire battlefield nuclear weapons at targets in E.

Germany, Poland or Czechoslovakia, but not at the Soviet Union, directly

relevant to the front line fighting. This would mean tactical airfields, first

line supply depots or collecting points for reinforcements."

#(Defence correspondent Douglas Home, The Times Dec 23 1969.)

#???Also, Sir Alec Douglas Home, as Foreign Secretary, according to The Times,

told the NATO Council in Paris on December 22 1961, in a reference to Berlin

that the British people were prepared to "be reduced to atomic dust."

Europe didn't have to wait many years for a conflict.

#As the diaries and memoirs of US Government officials such as Forrestal,

Vandenberg and Hickenlooper now reveal; since British scientists played a large

part in the development of the atom bomb, there was a secret pledge made by

Roosevelt and Churchill at the Quebec Conference in 1943 not to use it without

British consent. The US threatened to oppose Marshall Aid to Britain if the

British Government didn't release them from this treaty.

The Attlee Labour Government agreed, the US was released from the Quebec

agreement, and Marshall Aid arrived in Britain accompanied by American bombers -

for a "short training" and "good will" visit. Also as a requirement of Marshall

Aid Britain sold over to the US Britain's share in the Congo uranium mines,

which the US needed for its nuclear weapons programme.

And the British Government had already secretly agreed to Britain's own nuclear

arms programme in 1947.

Bases for the US bombers had already been set up in Britain under the pretext of

airlifting supplies to "starving Berlin" which was said to be "blockaded" by the

Soviets, who in fact were themselves feeding the people of West Berlin.

The truth, however, was that the West had begun to divide Germany by introducing

a separate currency into the Western zones, which upset the economy of the

Soviet zone. As was expected by the West, the Soviets closed the border in order

to protect the currency and the economy in their sector. But movements of

supplies and people were not heavily restricted. The Soviets even offered to

supply the whole of Berlin since there was no shortage in the Soviet zone of

Berlin. A similar offer was made by the Mayor of Berlin's Soviet zone:

"We have the coal and food stored in our warehouses. They can be had by Herr

Reuter [West Berlin's Mayor] for the whole of Berlin without any conditions

whatsoever. And if Herr Reuter does not want to accept, individual suburban

bergermeisters can have it. They can collect from us or we will deliver it to


(Mayor of Berlin's Soviet zone Friedrich Ebert.) (1)

Herr Reuter, who had said he would hang all communists "from the nearest trees

and lamp-posts", rejected the offer and forbade Western mayors to accept. Even

Western companies who accepted Ebert's offer of coal were blacklisted by the

Western authorities. Western Berliners had their sacks of coal given to them by

the Eastern sector confiscated by West Berlin border police.

The crisis and the airlift had to continue. There was no "blockade" of essential

supplies at all.

"The so-called 'blockade' began when the Americans and the British decided to

establish a separate West German State. That decision was a breach of the

Potsdam Agreement."

(D.N.Pritt KC. MP. in his book "Russia is for Peace.")

The so-called German "food crisis" was created by the West. The "food crisis"

enabled the US separate and get complete control of Western Germany.

It is significant that the day after the US currency reform many categories of

food suddenly became unrationed and luxury foods suddenly appeared in the shops.

The industrial workers, however, had been going short of basic foods since 1945,

surviving on about 700 calories a day (a slice of bread and a few potatoes was

the daily food intake for most of the Ruhr working class) as against the

promised 1,500 calories. The US controlled all food movement and prices, and

prevented the traditional trade or Ruhr coal and steel for foods from the East

on a barter basis. Instead, food had to be imported at US prices. The day after

currency reform it was planned to end potato rationing because a sudden

"surplus" of potatoes had accumulated in the US zone.

The "Berlin airlift" was nothing but an expensive propaganda show in order to

"prove" the Soviet Union's "hostile intentions" and provide a reason for setting

up the anti-Soviet alliance of NATO and for initiating another war against the


Dividing Germany was also part of the US strategic war plans:

"1. To evaluate the chances of success in delivering a powerful strategic air

offensive... and to appraise any adverse effect on this offensive of the

continuation of the Berlin airlift at its contemplated level until war occurs...

4. The Berlin airlift will be continued... until the outbreak of hostilities...

5. The strategic air offensive will be implemented on a first-priority basis."

(From declassified US security document JCS 1952/1, of Dec 21 1948.) (2)

(1)See:Wilfred Burchett "Cold War in Germany." Melbourne. 1950.

(2)See:Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Modern Military Records Branch,

National Archives, Washington DC.

Also: Reproduced in full in: T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on

American Policy and Strategy 1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

The Berlin airlift had the required propaganda value:

"There could be a settlement of the Berlin situation at any time on the basis of

a Soviet currency for Berlin and our right to bring in food, raw materials and

fuel to the Western sectors.

The present situation is, however, to US advantage for propaganda purposes. We

are getting credit for keeping the people of Berlin from starving; the Russians

are getting the blame for their privations.

If we settle Berlin, then we have to deal with Germany as a whole. We will have

to deal immediately with a Russian proposal for withdrawal of all occupation

troops and a return of Germany to the Germans. Frankly I do not know what we

would say to that. We cannot keep up the airlift indefinitely."

(US President Truman's foreign policy advisor, later Secretary of State John

Foster Dulles, in an off-the-record speech to the Overseas Press Club, Paris,

Jan 24 1949. (1)

It was much better for the US if the crisis could be maintained and the

shortages blamed on the Soviets and the fact that Germany had "lost" the rich

agricultural lands East of the Oder-Neisse line.

At the end of January 1949 Dulles stated in a New York Herald Tribune interview

that the US did not want the Berlin situation settled until NATO existed and

West Germany was integrated into Western Europe. (2)

It was the West's actions which created a separate German state. The West

introduced their separate currency into the Western zones on June 18 1948. This

was extended to West Berlin on June 23. The new notes had been printed in the US

many months before, and made the Marks in the Soviet zone valueless. The Soviets

immediately, as from June 20, put a tight control on all road, rail and river

transport into the Soviet zone. As an emergency measure the Soviets had to

prepare stamps which were pasted over the notes in their zone. These currency

reforms in West Berlin and West Germany seriously affected the economic

relations between West and East Germany. Over the 12 years of its open border

policy the GDR lost nearly 30 billion Marks.

Also a separate West German constitution was drawn up. The Allied Control

Council was dissolved by the West. On December 5 1948, separate elections were

held in the Western zones for a separate West German state. On December 21 1948

the British, US and French established a separate tripartite Kommandatura in

West Berlin. Finally, a separate Bonn state was established on September 7 1949.

Since Germany no longer existed as a whole, on October 7 1949 the GDR was


The FRG was again set up as Europe's "bulwark against communism."

Coupled with this is the dangerous Western ideology of revanchism; to "reclaim"

Europe's "lost territories".

"The best way to get back the German Eastern territories is the rearmament of

Germany in the framework of the European army."

(West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Feb 10 1952.) (3)

"Our aim is the liberation of our 18 million brothers and sisters in the Eastern

territories. Until now we have always spoken of the reunification of Germany.

But we should rather say 'liberation'."

(West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Sept 7 1953.) (4)

"The Eastern frontier of Bavaria must be strengthened for a solution of the

Sudeten German question in the spirit of the Munich pact and for an all European


(West German Minister, ex-Nazi Theodor Oberlander, in "Bulletin of the Federal

Government" Nov 6 1953.)

(1)See:D.N.Pritt, QC, MP. "Russia is for Peace." Lawrence and Wishart. London


(2)See:D.N.Pritt, QC, MP. "Russia is for Peace." Lawrence and Wishart. London


(3)See:"Conspiracy Against Europe. The Paris Agreements." Committee for German

Unity. Berlin 1955.

(4)See:"Conspiracy Against Europe. The Paris Agreements." Committee for German

Unity. Berlin 1955.

"I can only welcome any reinforcement of the defence front, whether through the

despatch of atomic weapons or by other military means."

(West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, to US Army newspaper Stars and Stripes,

Nov 1953.)

"If we give the Germans weapons and equal rights in the Atlantic Defence

Community, and also the hope that the East German zone can be liberated and the

lost territories East of the Oder-Neisse Line can be won back in a war, then

there can be little doubt that we can win the Germans as our most reliable


(The American Mercury, after Chancellor Adenauer's visit to the US, June 1953.)


"The Potsdam Agreement contains not only economic principles, it also contains

political principles which are for us Germans unacceptable and will remain


(West German Chancellor Adenauer, Feb 1 1953.)

"The following definitions and written forms are to be applied in regard to the

East German territories... For the East German territories beyond the Oder and

Neisse: German Reich territory within the frontiers of 31 December 1937 under

temporary Polish (or Soviet) administration, or the corresponding short form:

Eastern territories of the German Reich (as of 31 December 1937) at the moment

under foreign administration."

(West German War Ministry instructions on the official "designation of the

eastern territories, Dec 1958.) (2)

"Our territorial demands reach far beyond the Oder-Neisse line; we want to

recover the old German domains. The year 2000 must not be allowed to become the

83rd anniversary of the October Revolution in the world."

(Von Hassel, West German Minister for Expelled Persons, Refugees and War

Victims, Bulletin des Presse und Informationsamtes der Bundesregierung, Bonn,

Aug 21 1960.)

The border remained open till 1961.

In the middle of 1960 two West German Army officers; Major Bruno Winzer and

Captain von Gliga went to the GDR and revealed detailed plans for the FRG to

launch a lightning war against the GDR. The plans used the idea of creating an

'incident' in the GDR so that West German forces could intervene and occupy and

present the world with a fait accompli, saying that an internal German question

had been settled. These plans were made public by the GDR, who made it quite

clear in conjunction with the USSR that the Warsaw powers would defend their


#On June 14 1961, West German revanchists in the Bundestag passed a resolution

for the revision of Europe's frontiers. In the US on July 25 1961 the West

German Minister of defence, ex-Nazi Franz Josef Strauss, who still suffered from

frosbitten toes as a constant reminder of his exploits at Stalingrad, said that

the Second World War had still not ended and that a kind of civil war was in the

making. Bombings and other acts of sabotage were carried out in order to try and

destabilise the GDR Government. A plan called "Outline" was developed to seize

the GDR by force. On August 1 1961 NATO troops were ordered on a full alert for

an armed clash in Berlin. A public threat was issued by Kennedy and a nuclear

attack was planned. The USAF mobilised planes and the West German navy was

deployed in the Baltic and ex-Nazi General Spiedel had NATO ground forces

mobilised for the attack. The Warsaw Pact

(1)See:"Conspiracy Against Europe. The Paris Agreements." Committee for German

Unity. Berlin 1955.

(2)See:The Grey Book - Expansionist Policy and Neo-Nazism in West Germany.

Verlag Zeit im Bild. Dresden.

member nations met in Moscow. War was imminent. On August 13 1961 the West woke

up to find the Berlin wall had been built and manned by the workers' militia,

the People's Army of the GDR; backed by rows of Warsaw Pact tanks and artillery

and troops behind it. On August 25 1961 US General Clay's tanks approached the

border only to find lines of Soviet tanks opposing them. 16 hours later Clay's

tanks withdrew. The world stepped back from the brink of World War III. (1)

NATO's plan was abandoned; switching their plans to Czechoslovakia in 1968, as

we shall see later, when again their plans were stopped by the sudden appearance

of five Warsaw Pact forces, not just Soviet, to defend Czechoslovakia against a

combined counter-revolution and any desires of NATO to establish a base in


The Berlin wall was a normal border of a sovereign state. It was not a wall that

simply divides East and West ethnically or geographically; but a wall that

divides two world economic systems. It divides two ideologies and two world

outlooks; two worlds, one controlled by capital and one controlled by labour.

The division of Germany is on class lines. In the GDR, the working capital of

the whole state is owned by the working class - by the whole people. What share

of the working capital do workers own in the FRG?

The Berlin wall and the borders of the socialist countries are a barrier against

economic and political destabilisation of the world socialist community. The

defence of Socialism begins at the Berlin wall. Does Wall Street or Fenchurch

Street intend to move it? Does the Pentagon or Whitehall intend to knock it


In 1961 the GDR used the power of its borders to show the imperialists the

limits of their power. Imperialist power ends at the wall. But even though the

events of August 1961 showed the West the limits of its power, they haven't

given up:

"Our fatherland is Germany, not only the Federal Republic but also the Soviet

zone as well as the territories under Polish administration and the Soviet

annexed region around Konigsberg."

(Soldatenkurier, soldier's newspaper of the 5th Tank Division, Dietz/Lahn, May 1


"Our all-German positions are against the stabilisation of the status quo in

Germany and Europe. As long as we - supported by the free world - refuse to

accept the facts established by the communists in Germany, we are not only

keeping open the German question, but we are at the same time becoming effective

against the finality of the stabilisation of the status quo in Europe. The

non-recognition of the zone and the Oder-Neisse line fulfils a European

function... for the destiny of the Europeans under communist domination is... a

matter of political, historical and moral concern."

(Rainer Barzel, Die Welt, West Berlin, Oct 30 1965.)

"In my talks in the USA I explained that the Federal Republic of Germany...

would struggle with all political means for the restoration of the frontiers of

the German Reich of 1937... with a view to providing lasting conditions and a

peaceful order throughout the whole of Europe."

(Franz-Josef Strauss, Bayerne Kurier, Munich, June 25 1965.)

So a "peaceful order" in Europe is dependent only on restoration of the 1937

German Reich. And what if "all political means" fails? How then does one move

the frontiers of Europe? One cannot simply go and move the fence-posts:

"Without possession of atomic weapons it is unthinkable that Germany can restore

its historical frontiers."

(Secret memo of the Bonn Government, Dec 1961.) (2)

(1)See:Blachman and Kaplan "Force Without War." Washington 1978.

(2)See:The Grey Book - Expansionist Policy and Neo-Nazism in West Germany.

Verlag Zeit im Bild. Dresden.

"If it were up to me, we could break down the wall in Berlin. You have in the

meantime learned enough from me that I would risk a break-through. And I am sure

I could rely on you."

(Captain Ott, to soldiers of Armoured Rifle Brigade 13 of the West German Army.)


"As far as I am concerned, it could begin tomorrow. In one day we could be in

Leipzig [GDR B.M.] and by night-time I would already be sleeping on the stairs

of the central railway station."

(Captain Schubert, Signal Battalion Clausthal-Zellerfeld, to West German Army

recruits.) (2)

"An atomic war of extermination should be made the basis of total military

preparations by the government leadership. All military measures must be

reconsidered from the viewpoint of a war of extermination."

(Land Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany as an Organisational Problem.

Wehrkunde, Munich, 1966, No.5.)

"No, in this question of German life and destiny complete clarity and frankness

are all the more necessary... the final aim which is the united Reich including

the German territories in the East."

("Might and Right", in German Soldier's Yearbook 1966.) (3)

Like Hitler's Nazis, the West German revanchists still keep their military

options open for expansion to the East:

"Whoever is of the opinion that the best forward defence is a foreign policy,

which pushes its position ahead towards the East, will not allow the military

instrument to become blunted."

(Frankfurter Allgemeine, Feb 9 1967.)

"From here the German order of knights has carried the free culture of the

occident to the east of our fatherland since the Middle Ages."

(Brigadier General von Gaudecker, to West German Army recruits, Deutsches Eck,

Coblenz.) (4)

"Once flourishing stretches of country are situated beyond the Oder-Neisse line

which had formerly brought forth a surplus of food for the provision of many

millions of people - and which are now in a state of decay. The Polish settlers

installed there consider their presence in the Eastern German territories as


(Information fur de Truppe, special issue with map with 1937 frontiers "Die

Deutschen Ostgebeite." (The Eastern German Territories).) (5)

The US government and its faithful owners of the British media still pander to

West German revanchism in the 1980s:

(1)See:The Grey Book - Expansionist Policy and Neo-Nazism in West Germany.

Verlag Zeit im Bild. Dresden.

(2)See:The Grey Book - Expansionist Policy and Neo-Nazism in West Germany.

Verlag Zeit im Bild. Dresden.

(3)See:The Grey Book - Expansionist Policy and Neo-Nazism in West Germany.

Verlag Zeit im Bild. Dresden.

(4)See:The Grey Book - Expansionist Policy and Neo-Nazism in West Germany.

Verlag Zeit im Bild. Dresden.

(5)See:The Grey Book - Expansionist Policy and Neo-Nazism in West Germany.

Verlag Zeit im Bild. Dresden.

"Let me be very clear, the United States does not recognise the legitimacy of

the artificially imposed division of Europe... This division is the essence of

European security and human rights problems."

(US Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs George Schultz, to Stockholm

Conference on Confidence Building Measures and Disarmament, Jan 17 1984.)

Even during the world's 40th anniversary of its victory over fascism the West

German and US revanchists were calling for the restoration of the 1937 Reich


"May 8 1945 did not draw a line through the German question. The Reich within

the 1937 borders is not abolished."

(Alfred Dregger, former Nazi army Captain, chairman of the Christian Democratic

Union - CDU/CSU faction in the West German Bundestag, May 1985.) (1)

"The reason Yalta remains important is that the freedom of Europe is unfinished


(US President Ronald Reagan, Feb 1985.) (2)

"Forty years ago today the leaders of the Soviet Union, the United States and

the United Kingdom, met at Yalta in the Crimea to discuss the future of

Europe... Yalta means the root of all their present political evils... That is

what divided Europe and divides it still."

(The Times Feb 4 1985.)

Revanchism is presented to West Germans several times a day. Every time they see

the weather map on television it shows the 1937 frontiers. West German postage

stamps are issued which show as belonging to West Germany cities which belong to

other states. Thus revanchism is kept alive in the minds of the people in the

hope that one day conditions might present themselves in which the West can take

back the GDR into the imperialist fold. And psychological preparation of public

opinion continues:

"This fourth dimension is a war which cannot be shown on any strategic map, but

is wherever the press, radio or pictures can reach into the last village.

The battles of a third world war, fought on the level of this fourth dimension,

have long been in action, it is the struggle for the minds of the people of our


("Press Freedom and Psychological Armament." in Wehrkunde, official organ of the

West German War Ministry, Munich, 1964, No.9.)

(1)See:"Imperialism Condemned." Novosti. Moscow 1985.

(2)See:Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Vol 21, No.6. 1985.

Chapter 47




In the GDR, in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement, there are no Fascists in

power, no armaments industries, and no large army. And unlike West Germany,

there was no Marshall Aid.

Contrary to malicious Western propaganda, the Red Army did not "impose"

socialism on East Germany.

Regarding Germany, Stalin said at Potsdam that the political system of Germany

must be the decision of the German people:

"Germany is what she has become as a result of waging a war, there is no other

Germany. It is a nation without a government, without borders, without wealth,

without an army and without heavy industry and without Nazis. Germany is now

Zones of occupation. Therefore let the German people choose its government and

means of production and distribution of wealth."

(Stalin, Potsdam, 1945.)

In strict accordance with the Potsdam Treaty, and in direct contrast with the

FRG (West Germany), in the GDR (East Germany) land reform were carried out, the

property of Fascists was turned over to the people, and non-fascist political

parties and trade unions were formed. Local self government and administration

was established, and elections to community, district, and state assemblies of

people's representatives were held in 1946. Elections were equal, direct, and by

secret ballot, in which representatives of the Socialist Unity Party won the

majority of votes. Junkerdom, fascism and militarism were abolished, and

monopoly capital in land, finance and industry was handed over to the people;

and the press, judiciary and education were purged of fascists.

Contrary to the Potsdam Treaty, in the western Zones of occupation the formation

of a single German government was impeded, unification of political parties on a

nationwide basis was prevented and the Socialist Unity Party was prevented from

functioning. The Western occupied zones were united in a block as part of the

West's policy of splitting Germany. In September 1948 Western military

commanders formed a so-called "parliamentary council" which drafted the Bonn

constitution of a separate West German state which was approved of by the

Western military commanders-in-chief on May 12 1949. The West German people took

no part in the drafting of this constitution, which provided for the

re-domination of the monopolies and gave no guarantees against militarism,

fascism and revanchism (reformation of the 1937 German "Reich" lands).

The FRG was formed on September 20 1949 and headed by Adenauer.

"Bismark spoke about the coalition against Germany as his nightmare. I also have

my nightmare which is Potsdam."

(West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer.) (1)

Not long after the ink was dry on the Potsdam Agreement West Germany was

absolved most of its war debts and reparations and received millions of dollars

of US capital investments, known as "Marshall Aid." The German economy was so

poor that it was feared again, as it was before the war, that the German people

would opt for socialism.

(1)See:Bulletin des Presse und Informationsamtes der Bundesregierung. 13, Juni.


There had always been a strong socialist tradition in Germany, with many fine

leaders, such as Ernst Thaelmann, who spent ten years in Nazi jails from 1933

and was finally killed in Buchenwald, a concentration camp for political

prisoners, and many fine examples of of internationalism. When the town of

Eisleben, now in the GDR, was liberated, a banner which had been presented to

the workers of the town before the war by Soviet miners from Krivoi Rog was

brought out to greet the Red Army. Another act of solidarity by the town was the

hiding of a bronze statue of Lenin which the Nazis had brought from the Soviet

Union to melt down for armaments. Reprisals were taken, but the statue remained

hidden. When the Red Army liberated the town the inhabitants wanted to give it

back to its rightful owners. The Soviet authorities said: you saved it, we

donate it to you. A German journalist writes:

"The market-place was a sea of red flags. In the old town-hall a democratic

administration, a representative body of the working class was installed under

the glorious banner of the Krivoi Rog miners which Otto Brosowski, the Party

veteran, would not relinquish despite torture and solitary confinement by the

fascists. In the open... stood a statue of Lenin - material evidence that in

this part of Germany the torch of proletarian internationalism had never gone

out, that the banner of Ernst Thaelmann's Party had been held high, untainted,

despite the fascist darkness."

(Otto Winzer.) (1)

Many of the founders of the GDR were members of the Free German Committee formed

during the war by anti-Nazi German army officers and Reichstag deputies, some of

whom managed to reach the safety of Moscow before the war, and some of whom were

German prisoners of war captured by the Soviets. One such prisoner was Field

Marshal von Paulus, who surrendered at Stalingrad and joined the Free German

Committee in Moscow. After the war he taught at a Soviet military academy. He

died in the GDR in 1957.

"If the German people continue inertly to follow Hitler, then he can be

overthrown only by the armies of the Coalition. But that would mean the end of

our national independence and the partition of our country.

If the German people have the courage to free Germany of Hitler... then Germany

will have won the right to decide her own fate, and other nations will respect

her... But no one will make peace with Hitler; therefore the formation of a

genuine National Government is an urgent task... Such a government can be formed

only by men who have risen against Hitler...

The forces in the Army, true to their Fatherland, must play a decisive part in

this. Our aim is a free Germany, i.e.a strong democratic power totally unlike

the impotent Weimar Republic."

(From the Programme of the Free German Committee, 1943.)

The majority of Government ministers in the GDR also spent time in Hitler's

concentration camps - on the inside of the wire, including GDR President Erich

Honecker, who survived 10 years in Nazi concentration camps. President Honecker

and the people of the GDR say that as far as they are concerned: "Never again

will capitalism, exploitation, fascism or war emanate from German soil."

The GDR had a difficult birth. Berlin. like the rest of Germany, was a heap of

rubble, no food, since the Nazis had destroyed all the food stores, and little

of anything else. Most of the food, transport and other essentials were supplied

by the Soviet Union. Alexander Werth describes:

"The feeding of Berlin was a terrible problem, since the Nazis had destroyed all

the food-stores, saying: 'While we are here you'll have food, but when the

Bolsheviks take over, you'll starve.' But things were not nearly as bad as the

Germans - very frightened at first - had expected. The Red Army had presented

Berlin with a thousand lorries... twenty-five million marks..."

(British historian Alexander Werth.) (2)

(1)Otto Winzer "Zwolf Jahre Kampf gegen Faschismus und Krieg." Berlin 1955.

(2)Alexander Werth "Russia at War 1941-1945." Pan Books. London 1965.

To rid the country of fascism was one of the first priorities. Nazis were

removed from all positions of power and given other work to do. Nazi school

books were replaced and it was difficult to find enough anti-Nazi teachers.

Government. banks, land and industry have been taken over by the East German

people who, after paying heavy war reparations and without a penny of Marshall

Aid, have built themselves a fine, modern industrial country whose industrial

output is now among the world's top ten and whose standard of living is at least

as high as the average worker's in Britain. Like the other Socialist countries,

the GDR has no inflation, prices remain stable, and wages rise steadily, so the

real standard of living steadily rises. And it has an economic growth rate that

is the envy of the capitalist world.

The East Germans also had to rebuild their ruined and destroyed cities without

any capital aid from the West:

"Berlin, another of the cities largely decimated by World War II, immediately

involved one in thought of all the tortuous calamities resulting from warfare.

whilst the people were still living largely in cellars, dugouts or ruins, it had

been a question of whether it was worth trying to rebuild East Berlin at all, or

whether it would not be simpler to start afresh on a new site."

(Dean of Canterbury, Hewlett Johnson.) (1)

East Berlin is now a bright new clean and impressive modern city in almost all

respects and to an immensely greater degree than London, New York, and certainly

by contrast with West Berlin. It is often said that if you photographed or

filmed East and West Berlin and reversed the titles, such are people's abysmal

ignorance and prejudices engendered by a mind-saturating Western media, most

people would believe you. Much of West Berlin is dirtier, more run down and full

of rubbish, empty buildings, unemployment, homelessness, drugs, vandalism, crime

and every other example of Western inner city decay. East Berlin's equivalent to

London's Oxford Street is a wide street with wide pavements, boulevards, bright

new shops, office blocks and apartments of a quality which disgraces much of its

London counterpart. And how many working people in London could afford the rent

to live in an apartment above the shops in Oxford Street; as they do in the

centre of East Berlin?

(1)Hewlett Johnson "Searching for Light." Michael Joseph. London 1968.

To have an idea of what the GDR has had to cope with since 1945, let GDR workers


"For years we have been rebuilding Semper's Opera House which was destroyed

during a barbaric air raid on my home town. I don't know if anyone can imagine

how many bricks had to be carefully laid one by one with a spirit level, before

a window appeared, closed by an arch. The old stately building had thousands of

broken doors and windows. And inside the ring walls there was hardly a vault

left standing. But we have all grown up with concrete slabs. Who would know how

to model stucco rosettes? Who would know what colours were used for the painting

on the ceiling 110 years ago?

We had to learn all that and undertake the reconstruction work in full

accordance with the old designs, as if court architect Semper was standing right

behind us. He needed eight years to complete the building; the air raid in 1945

only needed eight seconds to destroy it. The surrounding pond was drained empty

to extinguish the fire. I sometimes wish that the general staff officers of the

American Air Force had had to drag all the bricks for us so that they might

think a little before they press the button again! With the bombs they have on

board today, the surrounding pond would evaporate in a flash.

I merely want to say: we builders will still not be finished with this project

when the Opera House is opened on 13 February 1985. That will be the 40th

anniversary of its destruction.

We must also ensure that anyone who wants to throw again a firebrand into our

building has his hand stayed. For this reason, I have served three years in the

National People's Army and, thus, I go on marches with the workers' militia at

the weekends: for the Zwinger, for the Kreuzkirche, for Semper's Opera House,

and for life in this city."

(Gerolf Otte, 27, bricklayer, Dresden, GDR.) (1)

"The roots of war, exploitation and oppression have been removed forever in the

first workers' and farmers' state on German soil."

(From "GDR Youth Accuses Imperialism.") (2)

"As I see it, there's a two-fold political as well as a two-fold economic reason

why we had to carry out land reform and make a success of it. First of all we

had to get rid of the Junkers, the princes, counts, barons and such junk. They

have been the curse of Germany and the curse of the small peasants and labourers

too, for long enough. They were a breeding ground for militarists, adventurers

and reactionaries of all sorts. They had to go. Without their estates, they're

no power and no danger at all. Let them go to the West and sit in their friends'

castles there and make their plans. They'll never come back, take my word for

it. Think of it, 2,000 of them owned as much land as 2,000,000 of our peasants."

(East German village committee official, to Australian journalist Wilfred

Burchett, in his book "Cold War in Germany.)

"The expropriated enemies of the people were received in the West German zones

of occupation with open arms. They put many a spoke in our wheel. We had a

miserable inheritance: we had four blast furnaces, and they were only fit for

the scrap heap. In what is now the Federal Republic, there were 156. In Leuna,

not one piece of piping was intact, in the IG-Farben works, by contrast, the

chimneys soon began smoking again."

(Gerda Hesse, Director of the Pirna Industrial Health Academy, GDR.) (3)

"When I was born, the question of who would win out, socialism or capitalism,

had been decided in favour of socialism. For 16 years the imperialists tried to

bleed us white on account of the open state borders, causing us losses in excess

of 100,000 million marks. They tried to roll socialism back through terrorist

groups, the discontinuation of vital supplies, phoney currency exchanges,

deliberate brain drains and smear campaigns. But we soon learnt to fight against

this. The workers' militia, the National People's Army, the Soviet Army and the

Warsaw Treaty Organisation created an impregnable barrier in August 1961. From

then on, we could at last work for ourselves."

(Carola Guntert, GDR.) (4)

Can anyone seriously imagine that the people of the GDR want to give the

factories back to the Krupps, Thyssen and IG-Farben monopolies, the banks back

to finance capital, and the land back to the Junkers land owners?

Author's note 2006:

Some will argue that the collapse of the Soviet Union and the European socialist

countries shows the unviability of socialism. About the same as Icarus crashing

to earth proves the unviability of manned flight.

Meeting previous GDR citizens in 2001, a common joke among them was that they

thought they were voting for socialism but with a Mercedes. Now the overwhelming

majority of them have neither. Bit like us in the UK really aren't they!

(1)See:"GDR Youth Accuses Imperialism." Berlin GDR 1985.

(2)See:"GDR Youth Accuses Imperialism." Berlin GDR 1985.

(3)See:"GDR Youth Accuses Imperialism." Berlin GDR 1985.

(4)See:"GDR Youth Accuses Imperialism." Berlin GDR 1985.

Chapter 48



"The future will almost certainly bring many further attempts by the Entente at

intervention and possibly a rebirth of the previous predatory alliance between

international and Russian capitalists, to overthrow Soviet rule in Russia, in

short, an alliance pursuing the old aim of extinguishing the centre of the world

socialist conflagration - the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic."

(Lenin, 1919.)

"The years in which we have the monopoly of the bomb are our years of


(US Secretary of Defence James Forrestal.) (1)

These "years of opportunity" were not ignored by the US.

#Recently declassified US military, State and National Security documents reveal

a number of early plans by the US to launch nuclear attacks on the USSR and

other Socialist countries - especially when the Soviet Union did not have

nuclear weapons. The first of these was in June 1946, code-named "Pincher",

planned the immediate obliteration of 20 Soviet cities and a land and sea

invasion through Poland, the Balkans and Western Asia. Other later plans had

codenames such as "Fleetwood", "Trojan", "Charioteer", and "Dropshot".

One such document, adopted August 14 1948, was US National Security Council

report 20/1. Declassified in 1978, it stated in its introduction:

"This government has been forced, for purposes of the political war now in

progress, to consider more definite and militant objectives towards Russia even

now, in time of peace, than it ever was called upon to formulate with respect

either to Germany or Japan in advance of the actual hostilities with those


(NSC 20/1. Records of the National Security Council on deposit in the Modern

Military Records Branch, National Archives, Washington DC.) (2)

Thus, the US, armed with nuclear weapons when the Soviet Union did not have

nuclear weapons, was planning war against the USSR.

Like Hitler, who planned a banquet at the Astoria hotel in Leningrad to

celebrate his victory over that city, invitations to which were found by the Red

Army in Berlin; the Americans even planned to put on Guys and Dolls at the

Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow. This was mentioned in George Kennan's memoirs; from an

article in Colliers magazine. The original idea was said to be from


#(1)See:"The Forrestal Diaries."

(2)See:T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and

Strategy 1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

NSC 20/1 goes on to describe post war occupation and administration of the USSR.

This envisaged the breaking up and dismemberment and economic domination of the

USSR in a manner similar to that of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty forced on the USSR

by Germany in 1918, which lost the USSR many territories:

"We would have to demand:

(a) Direct military terms ...evacuation of key areas...

(b) Terms designed to produce a considerable economic dependence on the outside

world... Such terms would have to be harsh ones and distinctly humiliating to

the communist regime in question. They might well be something along the lines

of the Brest-Litovsk settlement of 1918."

(NSC 20/1. Records of the National Security Council on deposit in the Modern

Military Records Branch, National Archives, Washington DC.) (1)

Thus, the US National Security Council became the successor not only to the

German imperialists of 1918, but also to the German fascists of 1941. It had

given up detente and peaceful coexistance.

But the US was not going to make the same mistake as the German imperialists of

1918 and conclude a definite peace treaty, even one as harsh as Brest-Litovsk:

"We would not be prepared to conclude a full-fledged peace settlement and/or

resume regular diplomatic relations with any regime in Russia dominated by any

of the present Soviet leaders or persons sharing their cast of thought. We have

had too bitter an experience, during the last fifteen years, with the effort to

act as though normal relations were possible with such a regime."

(NSC 20/1. Records of the National Security Council on deposit in the Modern

Military Records Branch, National Archives, Washington DC.) (2)

As for what kind of government would be imposed on the the USSR after such a

war, the US is indulging in a dream world all of its own. In 1917 Churchill

planned to use emigres and dissidents:

#"...assistance should be forthcoming ... to support any responsible body in

Russia willing to oppose actively the Maximalist [a word wrongly applied to the

Bolsheviks. B.M.] movement."

(From a secret War Cabinet meeting in London, Dec 3 1917.) (3)

Just like Churchill in 1918, the US planned to use emigres and dissidents:

"At the present time, there are a number of interesting and powerful Russian

political groupings among Russian exiles... any of which would probably be

preferable to the Soviet government, from our standpoint, as the rulers of


(NSC 20/1. Records of the National Security Council on deposit in the Modern

Military Records Branch, National Archives, Washington DC.) (4)

And what would the Americans do with the Soviet Communist Party?

"This is an extremely intricate question. There is no simple answer to it."

(NSC 20/1. Records of the National Security Council on deposit in the Modern

Military Records Branch, National Archives, Washington DC.) (5)

The document now, indulging in ever more wishful thinking, envisages the use of

Tsarist emigre White terror while washing its own hands of such operations:

(1)See:T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and

Strategy 1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

(2)See:T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and

Strategy 1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

(3)Public Records Office: Cabinet 24/36 Vol 31.

Quoted in:Fyodor Volkov "Secrets of Whitehall and Downing Street." Progress.

Moscow 1986.

(4)See:T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and

Strategy 1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

(5)See:T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and

Strategy 1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

"In any territory which is freed of Soviet rule, we will be faced with the human

remnants of the Soviet apparatus of power...

It is probable that... the local Communist Party apparatus would go underground,

as it did in the areas taken by Germany during the recent war. It would then

probably re-emerge in part in the form of partisan bands...

...the problem of dealing with it would be a relatively simple one; for we would

need only to give the necessary arms and military support to whatever

non-Communist Russian authority might control the area and permit that authority

to deal with the communist bands, through the traditional thorough procedures of

Russian civil war...

...and to dispose of them in such ways as to prevent their being harmful in the

future... We must always remember that to be the subject of persecution at the

hands of a foreign government inevitably makes local martyrs..."

(NSC 20/1. Records of the National Security Council on deposit in the Modern

Military Records Branch, National Archives, Washington DC.) (1)

Another US nuclear war plan against the USSR, codenamed "Charioteer", drawn up

for the US Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1948 spoke of:

"...a concerted attack employing atomic bombs against governmental, political

and administrative centres, urban industrial areas, and selected petroleum

targets within the USSR from bases in the western hemisphere and the United


("Dropshot.") (2)

By September 1 1948. plan "Fleetwood" had been drawn up and circulated to US

armed forces field headquarters.

But there were reservations and cautions which stated that by the first six

months of the war:

"...the Soviets have the capability of occupying and consolidating the entire

northern littoral of the Mediterranean from the Pyrenees to Syria, and of

bringing the Mediterranean LOC under heavy air attack. In addition they have the

capability of occupying Spain by approximately D+6 and bringing the line of

communication under artillery fire."

(Brief of Short Range Emergency War Plan JCS 1844/13 July 21, 1948. Records of

the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Deposit in the Modern Military Records Branch,

National Archives, Washington DC.) (3)

(1)See:T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and

Strategy 1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

(2)A.C.Brown "Dropshot: The US Plan for War With the Soviet Union in 1957." Dial

Press. NY 1978.

(3)SeeT.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and

Strategy 1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

On December 21 1948, an operational plan was submitted to the Joint Chiefs of

Staff of the US Air Force. This operational plan said:

2. War will occur prior to April 1, 1949.

3. Atomic bombs will be used to the extent determined to be practical and


(b) Target folders and navigational charts will be available by 1 February 1949

for operations against the first seventy cities..."

(Operational plan SAC EWP 1-49. JCS 1952/1. Dec 21, 1948. Strategic Air Command

Emergency War Plan 1-49. Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Deposit in the

Modern Military Records Branch, National Archives, Washington DC.) (1)

In 1919 a US agent had found it useless to try to change the Soviet political

economic system by military force:

"The Soviet government is firmly established and the Communist Party is strong

politically and morally... it is my conviction that the Soviet government is the

only constructive force in Russia today... No government save a socialist

government can be set up in Russia today except by foreign bayonets, and any

government so set up will fall the moment such support is withdrawn."

(William Bullitt, American agent on a mission to Soviet Russia, in a telegram to

US President Woodrow Wilson.) (2)

Thirty years later, not all of the US forces commanders were confident of the

success of their plans to set up a government in the Soviet Union by the use of

'foreign bayonets', but on May 11 1949 a review committee, coming to the

conclusion that such a limited nuclear war might not be decisive because of

political and psychological considerations, submitted a secret report:

Evaluation of Effect on Soviet War Effort Resulting from the Strategic Air


"1. To evaluate the effect on the war effort of the USSR of the Strategic Air

Offensive contemplated in current war plans, including an appraisal of the

psychological effects of atomic bombing on the Soviet will to wage war...

9. Physical damage... 30 to 40 percent reduction of Soviet industrial capacity.

This loss would not be permanent and could either be alleviated by Soviet

recuperative action or augmented depending upon the weight and effectiveness of

follow up attacks...

11. The initial atomic offensive could produce as many as 2,700,000 mortalities,

and 4,000,000 additional casualties, depending upon the effectiveness of Soviet

passive defense measures...

12. The atomic offensive would not, per se, bring about capitulation, destroy

the roots of Communism or critically weaken the power of Soviet leadership...

13. For the majority of Soviet people, atomic bombing would validate Soviet

propaganda against foreign powers, stimulate resentment against the United

States. unify these people and increase their will to fight. Among an

indeterminate minority, atomic bombing might stimulate dissidence...

18. Atomic bombing will produce certain psychological and retaliatory reactions

detrimental to the achievement of Allied war objectives and its destructive

effects will complicate post-hostilities problems."

(US Review Committee's Report: Evaluation of Effect on Soviet War Effort

Resulting from the Strategic Air Offensive. May 11 1949) (3)

(1)T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy

1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

(2)Foreign Relations of the United States, 1919, Russia, p81,83.

Quoted in:Fyodor Volkov "Secrets of Whitehall and Downing Street." Progress.

Moscow 1986.

(3)Records of the Organisational Research and Policy Division of the Office of

the Chief of Naval Operations, Naval Historical Center, Washington DC.

See also:T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and

Strategy 1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

NSC 20/1 also expressed a realisation that an all out military occupation and

administration was not practical:

"In the first place we must assume that it will not be profitable or practically

feasible for us to occupy and take under our military administration the entire

territory of the the Soviet Union. This course is inhibited by the size of that

territory, by the number of its inhabitants... In other words, we could not hope

to achieve any total assertion of our will on Russian territory, as we have

endeavoured to do in Germany and Japan. We must recognise that whatever

settlement we finally achieve must be a political settlement..."

(NSC 20/1. Records of the National Security Council on deposit in the Modern

Military Records Branch, National Archives, Washington DC.) (1)

Thus, the Generals had come to the conclusion that armed force, even in a

limited nuclear war, would not change the Soviet social and political system.

And therefore only complete military superiority in an all out war could be

decisive in changing the Soviet political economic system. Perhaps also the

failure of Hitler's blitzkrieg against the Soviets with all the resources of

Europe at its disposal was still fresh in their minds.

But US monopoly in nuclear weapons ended in September 1949 when it became

obvious that the USSR had tested a nuclear device.

It was then that plan "Trojan", a lightning "preventive" strike, hurriedly was

drawn up to be put into operation on January 1 1950. (2)

However, after war games evaluations the Joint Chiefs of Staff again could not

be sure of a decisive victory over the Soviet Union.This was because of a number

of "technical reasons". Among these was a possible 55 percent loss among bomber

crews, who might cease to continue to obey their commanders. During World War

Two bombing raids over Nuremberg 20 percent losses almost caused mutiny among

air crews. Other considerations were numbers of planes and bombs available, the

fact that Moscow and Leningrad could only be reached from new bases in Britain,

which could now be destroyed by Soviet atom bombs, and that the Soviets could

occupy Europe and the Middle and Far East, and knock out the US Strategic Air

Command early in the war, and that the US did not have enough bases around the


"The Air Force could not (a) complete the entire air offensive called for in

Trojan or (b) provide the air defense for the United States and Alaska."

(Major General S.Anderson, Director of the US Air Force plans and operations,

April 11 1950.) (3)

Thus, a political war by the US against the USSR would have to be put off until

the US had enough bases and allies so strategically located around the world as

to ensure a complete and decisive all out victory if it was to achieve its

avowed intention to wipe socialism off the face of the earth. The US could then

take over the other, smaller socialist countries with more or less impunity.

A coalition war by US, NATO, and other allied forces was drawn up, code named

"Dropshot", and planned to be put into operation on January 1 1957.

"Dropshot", declassified in 1978, planned the destruction of 85 percent of all

Soviet industry and the division of the Soviet Union into four regions of

operation by 38 army divisions [about 1 million men B.M.]. However, the Soviet

Union had its own thermonuclear weapons by 1953 and had superior ICBMs

(intercontinental ballistic missiles) by 1957, and "Dropshot" had to be


(1)See:T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and

Strategy 1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

(2)See:A.C.Brown "Dropshot: The US Plan for War With the Soviet Union in 1957."

Dial Press. NY 1978.

(3)A.C.Brown "Dropshot: The US Plan for War With the Soviet Union in 1957." Dial

Press. NY 1978.

While planning operation "Dropshot" the US National Security Council was also

drawing up its Directive NSC-68, which was approved by President Truman in 1950

and declassified in 1975.

"A powerful blow could be delivered on the Soviet Union, but it is estimated

that these operations alone would not force the Kremlin to capitulate...

Without superior aggregate military strength, ...a policy of 'containment' -

which is in effect a policy of calculated and gradual coercion - is no more than

a policy of bluff...

...could only be a tactic... to gain public support for the programme...

...overt psychological warfare... with a view to fomenting and supporting unrest

and revolt in selected and strategic satellite countries...

...emphasis should be given to the essentially defensive character and care

should be taken to minimise, so far as possible, unfavourable domestic and

foreign reactions."

(NSC 68.) (1)

The British Tories are always saying that it is the West's possession of nuclear

weapons that has kept the peace since 1945. The Pentagon's abandonment of these

plans to launch a nuclear war against the USSR if it could do so from a position

of strength shows that it is precisely the Soviet Union's possession of nuclear

weapons that has always thwarted the West's nuclear war plans and kept the


(1)T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy

1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

For the full text of NSC 20/1, NSC 20/4, NSC 68, and other NSC documents; see:

T.Etzold and J.Gaddis "Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy

1945/50." Columbia University Press. NY 1978.

And:A.C.Brown "Dropshot: The US Plan for War With the Soviet Union in 1957."

Dial Press. NY 1978.

Also published in England as: "Operation World War III." Arms and Armour Press.

London 1978.

#See also:Dr. Mikio Kaku and Daniel Axelford "To Win a Nuclear War. The

Pentagon's Secret War Plans."

Main extracts from these and other secret US documents are printed in:

Prof. N.Yakoflev "CIA Target - The USSR." Progress Publishers. Moscow 1980.

School and college history, economics and business studies teaching and books do

not contain any of this information.

All the material and information I have presented here is readily available to

historians, writers, journalists, teachers, educators and syllabus publishers.

Although I have spent many hundreds of hours gathering it all together, I did

not have to look very far to find any of it.

When as a trainee history lecturer, it was suggested I take the class on a trip

to the Tower of London and then set them an essay on what life was like for a

soldier in King Charles' Army centuries ago. Very useful knowledge that! A

sociology of the past perhaps? But certainly not history in its most important

sense; unless history is to mean anything old or 'interesting' that you can do

in evening classes, like antiques, flower arranging or basket weaving. When

instead I taught real history, learning from the past in order to change the

future, the collective life-experience of humanity, I was got rid of. The head

of the history department complained that the students had remarked that I made

them think; which the head of history had probably never done in a lifetime of

teaching. I ended up washing and cleaning and emptying human surgical waste in a


Unless teachers learn to be brave and intellectually honest (difficult when they

have a mortgage and bills to pay), future historical, social and economic

education and popular 'knowledge' will also not refer to the US or British

history and continuing complicity in global plunder, exploitation, domination

and control, wars of aggrandisement and acquisition, causing the deaths and

devastation of the homes and lands of millions of people - the thousands of

children under the age of two who will die tonight through simple lack of food,

clean water, medicine and education - the untold millions of unnecessary deaths

among the overwhelming majority of humanity on this incredibly rich and abundant

and ultimately sustainable earth.

From Brian Mitchell. Evolution.

Responses and criticisms welcomed. Reply to my personal e-mail if you prefer. My

replies to criticisms will be posted.


"Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery; None but ourselves can free our

minds." (Bob Marley, Redemption song.)

"The most remarkable thing about the world is that you can understand it."


"I find television very educating. Every time somebody turns on the set I go

into the other room and read a book." (Groucho Marx.)

"Above all, always be capable of feeling deeply any injustice against anyone,

anywhere in the world." (Ernesto (Che) Guevara, in a letter to his children, a

few months before he was killed.)

"And if we were all capable of unity to make our blows stronger and infallible

and so increase the effectiveness of all kinds of support given to the

struggling people - how great and close would the future be." (Che Guevara.)

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there, so if you'd like to chat thats where i'll be :)

My Myspace is


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#744 From: adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

Date: Sat Feb 3, 2007 4:16 pm

Subject: Hello all new here, anyone on myspace? adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

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Just browsing this group, seems cool, don't know how it all works, just thought

I would say Hi, Im just out of a LTR and looking for a bit of fun. I don't have

any kids or baggage, and have been told I am hot, but hey judge for yourself

lol. I am willing to travel if the situation is right. If there is anyone on

here that is interested in chatting more and is not some crazy stalker type

(lol) hit me up, i have a weebkam set up on my myspace profile which you can get

to by going here:


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#745 From: adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

Date: Fri Feb 16, 2007 3:54 pm

Subject: Hello Group, 27/ Transexual here adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

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I am 27, transexual, looking to meet str8 guys. I am very feminine etc. If you

would like to chat, you can go to my myspace page, I have my webbkam set up on

there too so we can chat on there. You can get to my myspace profile at:



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#746 From: adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

Date: Fri Feb 16, 2007 10:30 pm

Subject: Just introducing myself to you all adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

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I just joined the group, wanted to say Hi and introduce myself. I am catie. I am

currently living in texas but thats always changing now that I am almost out of

art school! I was in a relationship for a while now I am not and just looking to

make friends and have a 'good time' :) I am mainly into mutual masturbation, 3

somes, and occasionally rough sex and anal. I like deep penetration. Most of it

depends on how much I drink lol! Anyways. Thats all. Would love to chat with

any guys that might be interested. You can get a hold of my from my tvm profile


My webcam is on there thats usually where I am at.



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#747 From: adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

Date: Sat Feb 17, 2007 3:13 am

Subject: anyone drinkin? adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

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Ive had a bit too much lol. If anyone wants to chat a little i'lll be adrinkin

for a while longer 2nite. I've got a bottle of jack and a webkam, and don't give

a fuk im fked up lol. If you chat/ play you can get to my Kam from my profile


- Catie


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#748 From: adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

Date: Sat Feb 17, 2007 4:41 pm

Subject: Hows everyone's Saturday going? adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

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Im a little hung over lol, actually alot hung over but they say the only way to

get rid of a hang over is to... well start drinking again lol... i guess that is

what i will do haha. If anyone is bored like me and wants to chat / play i'll

be on the webkam all day like usual lol. You can get to it from my tvm profile





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#749 From: adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

Date: Sun Feb 18, 2007 3:37 am

Subject: Im bored and horrrnnnyy adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

Send Email Send Email

If any cute guys feel like chatting, hit me up, I am feeling a little frisky

lol. I don't want to leave my email addy on this group page thingy so just go to

my profile to get to me. The webbkamm is up





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#750 From: adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

Date: Sun Feb 18, 2007 10:34 pm

Subject: Hey group, catie here adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

Send Email Send Email

Doesn't seem like much action here, if anyone wants to chat, play, **** around,

what ever, I am ready, been drinkin my jack n cokes all day and am pretty wasted

lol. Stop being a pussssssyy and come chat with me lol. Seriously though someone

come play with me im bored and drunk, I have the webbkam on so wtf? I will show

you my freshly shaven puzzy :) You can get to me from my TVM profile page at ,

Drink up hehe



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#751 From: adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

Date: Mon Feb 19, 2007 6:35 am

Subject: 25 Bi Male looking for F*ck buddy(s) adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

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Hello group, I will cut to the chase, I am Kevin, I am a flight attendant, 25

years old, work out 7 days a week, hung, and clean. I am always traveling, have

free airline tickets anywhere i want to go, looking for Gay/Bi FK buddies. I am

very discreet and hope you are too. If you are interested, you can contact me,

view my pics and get to my kam on my tvm profile page which is

Got what it takes? Lets talk,

Presidents day off you?



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#752 From: adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

Date: Wed Feb 21, 2007 4:00 pm

Subject: Hello group, new here, Angela adultgroupsm69nl5m8e@...

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Just wanted to say HI. I am 25, a petite TS. Looking for str8 guys mainly. But

am not too picky. Thought I would try this group. I am very very femine, VERY

discreet, sexy, and clean. I hope you are too! I can go to you, or you come to

me, what ever is best. If you like my photos, and want to chat, i got the kam

chat on. lets discuss :) You can get to it from my tvm profile at

Curious? I hope so :) lol

XO Angela


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#753 From: "Brian Mitchell"

Date: Tue Mar 27, 2007 11:40 am

Subject: Chapters 49 - 50. 1917 AND ALL THAT: THE UNTAUGHT HISTORY SYLLABUS. In Their Own Words: A Political History Of The Cold War 1917-1983 evolutionnow...

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In Their Own Words: A Political History Of The Cold War 1917-1983.

By Brian Mitchell.

My apologies to those who have been following these excerpts from my book and

waiting for this last two chapters.

Delays are due to health problems, which will hopefully be now more under

control. Unless we need more money to bomb another country for its oil, of

course. Then I'll probably have to wait even longer for an appointment.

After all, each Cruise or Tomahawk missile being more or less the cost of a new

NHS hospital, built, equipped, staffed and maintained for a year. Whoops, there

goes another operating theatre.

But then we need the oil don't we? How else will we 4 wheel drive Jeep the kids

to the local grammar school - which of course is half way up Mount Killimanjaro?

Thank you all for your patience.

Brian Mitchell.

Chapters 49 - 50 of 50. .

Chapter 49



"I'm willing to be just as generous as we possibly can, so long as that's

consistent with maintaining clear supremacy."

(US Ambassador to United Nations Jean Kirkpatrick.)

The West has always led the arms race. And in the 1980s the West was still

planning to lead the arms race:

"Serious negotiations on arms control can only take place after we have

increased our forces... in ten years time."

(Reagan's chief negotiator in Geneva Paul Nitze, Los Angeles Times Sept 28


For the third time in their brief history, the Soviet people can see the

capitalist world arming against them; this time with nuclear weapons.

Any scientific look at the history of arms development will show that British

and US 'defensive' nuclear weapons are always about attacking the Soviet Union

through the Soviet Union's continually improving defence systems.

Washington and Moscow did not suddenly decide to have an arms race; like two

athletes or football teams. The whole history of the arms race shows that it was

started by one, and the other was forced to follow:


First Atomic bomb: USED: 1945 Tested: 1949

Formation of military blocs: NATO: 1949 Warsaw Pact: 1955

First hydrogen bomb available: 1953 1954

Medium range missiles: 1953 1959

First Inter Continantal Ballistic Missiles available: 1955 1957

First nuclear armed submarines launched: 1956 1962

Submarine launched ballistic missiles: 1959 1968

Solid fuelled ICBMs: 1962 1969

MRVs (Multiple re-entry vehicles): 1964 1972

MIRVs (Independently targetable): 1970 1975

It is also common knowledge that the West was first with Cruise, Trident and

Pershing missiles, and Neutron bombs, and Manoeuverable Re-entry Vehicles

(MARVs). The West was also first with chemical, biological, and binary weapons.

The Soviets do not have any equivalent of some of these latest US weapons.

From 1945 to 1983, the US, Britain and France conducted a total of 896 nuclear

tests, of these 748 were by the US. The Soviet Union conducted a total of 492

over the same years.

The West has always led the arms race. And the US would not have hesitated to

use its nuclear superiority to blackmail the Soviet Union into refraining from

giving military assistance to any third world country that wanted to take the

socialist path or in some way become independent from US exploitation:

"In the early postwar years, we had a monopoly of nuclear weapons. And for a

decade after that - until the middle or late sixties - we had overwhelming

nuclear superiority... which determined the outcome of the Berlin airlift, the

Korean war, and the Cuban missile crisis... in the late '60s and early '70s, our

nuclear superiority was no longer so evident as it had been at the time of the

Cuban missile crisis; indeed superiority had given way to stalemate. The

deterioration of our nuclear advantage led to the erosion of our position (in

Vietnam) and profoundly affected the final stages of the conflict.

The mission of our nuclear forces. must also provide a nuclear guarantee for our

interests in many parts of the world, and make it possible to defend those

interests by diplomacy or by the use of theatre military forces whenever such

action becomes necessary. .we carry on the foreign policy of a nation with

global interests, and defend them if necessary by conventional means or theatre


(Eugene Rostow, former head of US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, in "The

Case Against SALT II." Commentary, Feb 1979.)

"By every significant measure of comparison, the United States has always held,

and continues to hold, a commanding lead in strategic power...

Both the nuclear and conventional balances of power in Europe have always

favoured NATO and continue to do so...

While the Soviet Union has done all it could do to match Western levels of

strength, it has failed to change the military balance...

It is the Soviets who always have to respond..."

(US military and defence expert Tom Gervasi.)

In other words: if we had nuclear superiority we would have used it in Vietnam.

But communists do not want war. They have no interest in war.

"Russia has not the slightest thing to gain by a war with the United States. I

believe Russia's policy is friendship with the United States. There is in Russia

a desperate and continuing concern for the lot of the common man and they want

to be friends with the United States."

(Eisenhower, Nov 15 1944. The Nashville Banner Nov 15 1944.)

Communists do not want arms races. They do not want to build missiles and

missile silos. They want to build houses, health centres, schools, sports

complexes, hydro-electric power stations, universities, industrial complexes,

hospitals, gas pipelines, steel plants, factories producing consumer goods,

railways, roads, ports, and new towns and cities. And they want to trade with

the capitalist world on an equal basis.

"What the Soviet Union proposes to the capitalist countries is competition in

raising the standard of living of the people and not in the arms race, in

building houses and schools and not military bases and rocket launching sites,

in expanding mutually advantageous trade and cultural exchanges and not the

"cold war","

("USSR Today and Tomorrow.")

It was not communists who attacked Vietnam and subjected the Vietnamese people

to over 30 years of war. It was not communists who backed and rearmed Hitler's

Germany. Nuclear bombs were not dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki by communists.

It was not communists who attacked Nicaragua. It wasn't communists who mined

Nicaragua's sea-ports, damaging Soviet ships and killing their crew; or

destroyed Nicaraguan oil installations at Corinto. Communists did not attack El

Salvador, Dominican Republic, Korea, Angola, Lebanon and just about every other

country on earth. It was not communists who tried to destabilise the world

socialist community by provoking counter-revolutions in Hungary in 1956,

Czechoslovakia in 1968, or Afghanistan and Poland in the 1980s. It was not

communists who overthrew Chile's progressive Allende government and installed

Pinochet; or overthrew Spain's democratic government and brought Franco to

power. Nor did communists plan or launch the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba.

Communists did not bomb Libya. Communists did not attack or occupy Malaya,

Indonesia, Cyprus, Aden, Iraq, Iran, or attack Afghanistan from Pakistan. And

communist troops do not occupy Northern Ireland. It was not communists who

bombed the innocent people of Kampuchea (Cambodia) and installed Pol Pot, and

communists did not reduce the population of Laos by three million to three and a

half million in the secret bombing war against that country. And communists did

not invade and still occupy the tiny Caribbean island of Grenada.

These attacks, and many more, were the actions of anti-communists and the forces

of capital.

It was not communists, but US or British capitalists who have been involved in

acts of aggression, invasions or military occupations, usually to put down

progressive governments or popular uprisings, such as in Honduras in 1905, Cuba

in 1906, Nicaragua in 1912, Haiti in 1914, the Dominican Republic in 1916, Cuba

in 1917, Nicaragua in 1926, the Philippines in 1945-1956, Greece 1946-1949,

China 1946-1949, Paraguay 1947, Costa Rica 1948, Burma 1949-1961, Puerto Rico

1950, Korea 1950-1953, Guatemala 1954, Vietnam 1954-1973, Costa Rica 1955,

Lebanon 1958, Laos 1959-1962, Cuba 1961, Guatemala 1962, Panama 1964, Columbia

1964, Laos 1964-1970, Dominican Republic 1965, Thailand 1966, Haiti 1969,

Cambodia (now Kampuchea) 1970, Trinidad and Tobago 1970, Laos 1971-1973, Chile

1973, Angola 1975, Zaire 1978, Costa Rica 1979, Iran 1980, and in the 1980s so

far: El Salvador, Nicaragua, Lebanon, Grenada, Libya, and covert or mercenary

operations against Afghanistan and a number of other countries.

According to the US Brookings Institute the US used its armed forces in other

countries on 215 occasions between 1946 and 1975 alone.

It wasn't British communists who said "me too" to the US.

"The Western Powers have got to be strong... They have got to be perfrctly clear

as to the kind of world they want and stand for it until they get it."

(British Labour Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin, House of Parliament, Oct 17


"We ourselves have to keep forces in various parts of the world, garrisoning key

points such as Hong Kong or the Middle East... or engaged in actual fighting

against Communist banditry in Malaya. Therefore our military forces are


(British Labour Prime Minister Attlee, in a broadcast, July 31 1950.)

"Then there are the British forces which are spread about the East and the Far

East... in Hong Kong, Malaya and to some extent in the Canal Zone of the Middle

East... This makes a numerical total of twenty-six divisions."

(Winston Churchill, House of Parliament, Jan 30 1952.)

"The units of our army are almost all overseas."

(Winston Churchill, House of Parliament, July 30 1952.)

No Soviet politician or military man has ever been recorded as making statements

like any of the following:

"Now that we have got a head start on the H. Bomb we should lay down the law...

not as diplomats, but as soldiers... We have got to act while we have the


(Former US Commander in Berlin General Howley, Feb 6 1950.)

"President Truman told a press conference today that the United States was

relying on force rather than diplomacy in its dealings with the Soviet Union."

(Manchester Guardian Sept 21 1951.)

"War! As soon as possible! Now!... We must start by hitting below the belt. This

war cannot be conducted according to Marquis of Queensberry rules."

(US Military Attache in Moscow General Grow, 1952.)

"We need a voice which clearly takes our leadership. Communism must be

destroyed... We must hit below the belt... War! As quickly as possible! Now!"

(Former US Military Attache in Moscow Major General Robert Grow.)

It was not any Soviet politician or General who said any of the following:

"We must maintain armed forces all over the world. The United States may have to

occupy more countries before the cold war is ended."

(US Vice President Barkley, New Orleans, May 22 1950.)

"By the use of economic aid we succeeded in getting access to Iranian oil and

we are now well established in the economy of that country. to acquire control

over her foreign policy. make her join the Bagdad Pact. .the Shah would not dare

even to make any changes in his cabinet without consulting our Ambassador."

(Letter from US Council on Foreign Relations member millionaire Nelson

Rockefeller to President Eisenhower, January 1956.)

"Our aim is not simply to appropriate oil in one way or another (say in easily

accessible Nigeria or Venezuela) but to crush OPEC. Therefore we have to use

direct force in order to get hold of large and concentrated oil deposits which

can be opened up rapidly so as to put an end to the artificial oil shortage and

thus to lower the price... Since this is the ultimate and there is only one

target possible: Saudi Arabia... Fortunately, these are not only rich oilfields

but they are also concentrated in a very small area, a fraction of the Saudi

Arabian territory... While Vietnam was full of trees and brave people and our

national interest was almost invisible, what we have here is no trees, very few

people and a clear objective."

(Advisor to the US Defence Department Professor Miles Ignotas, March 1975.)

"The economic health and well-being of the United States, Western Europe, Japan

depend upon continued access to the oil from the Persian area."

(President Carter, Department of State Bulletin, April 1978.)

"Western industrialised societies are largely dependent on the oil resources of

the Middle East region and a threat to access to that oil would constitute a

grave threat to the vital national interests. This must be dealt with; and that

does not exclude the use of force if necessary."

(US Secretary of State Alexander Haig, March 11 1981.)

"As outlined in the paper, the strategy for Southwest Asia, including the

Persian Gulf, directs American forces to be ready to force their way in if

necessary, and not to wait for an invitation from a friendly government, which

has been the publicly stated policy."

(US Defense Department, reported in New York Times May 30 1982.)

"We must be prepared for waging a conventional war that may extend to many parts

of the globe. Many of the resources that we need for energy and many essential

strategic minerals are found thousands of miles from our shores... If we are to

safeguard our access, and the access of the free world, to these resources, we

must increase our military and naval strength."

(US Defence Secretary Caspar Weinberger, April 28 1981.)

"As the largest producer, the largest source of capital, and the biggest

contributor to the global mechanism, we must set the pace and assume the

responsibility of the majority stockholder in this corporation known as the

world... Nor is this for a given term of office. This is a permanent


(Leo D. Welch, Secretary-Treasurer of US Standard Oil Company, 1946.)

"It will become increasingly difficult in the near future to protect US overseas

interests with conventional weapons... I have in mind situations far from our

shores,... where we would have difficulty, from a logistics point of view, at

least, in reaching the areas in which we have considerable US interests.

.we have an added motivation... the need for the United States to look more and

more overseas for the resources to provide economic strength... we will be

looking increasingly towards Africa and the Middle East, as well as South

America, for the materials required by our industrial economy... We will require

free access and intercourse with many far distant nations of the world in order

to remain a leading export - import nation.

We may have confrontations with nuclear or non-nuclear nations whose

geographical location is such that we have no adequate means of protecting our

interests with conventional weapons... The use of nuclear weapons with varying

capabilities might be the only effective method of accomplishing our objectives,

protecting our interests, and minimising the overall death and destruction that

might accrue."

(US Vice Admiral Gerald E Miller, Congressional Testimony, March 18 1976.)

"The United States, as an island nation heavily dependent on overseas raw

materials, must continue its forward deployment of forces in Asia and the

Pacific region. There is no cheaper way to American security."

(US Defence Secretary Frank Carlucci.)

"You know, there was a time when our national security was based on a standing

army here within our own borders and shore batteries of artillery along our

coasts... The world has changed. Today, our national security can be threatened

in far away places. It is up to all of us to be aware of the strategic

importance of such places and to be able to identify them... ...all are vital to

us and if it went to world powers hostile to the free world, there would be a

direct threat to the United States and to our allies."

(Ronald Reagan, in a Television Address, Oct 27 1983.)

"In Asia our efforts were far less successful... the conception of force was too

nakedly shown, too much stress was laid on the military side, while we largely

ignored the importance of preliminary economic preparations for the alliances we

wished to make. But the same military measures will often be found

unobjectionable if the way to them is paved with economic aid...

The most significant example in practice of what I mean was the Iranian

experiment with which, as you will remember, I was directly concerned. By the

use of economic aid we succeeded in getting access to Iranian oil and we are now

well established in the economy of that country. The strengthening of our

economic position in Iran has enabled us to acquire control over her foreign

policy and in particular to make her join the Bagdad Pact. At the present time

the Shah would not dare even to make any changes in his cabinet without

consulting our Ambassador...

For us to have in Asia, Africa and other under-developed areas a political and

military influence as great or greater than we obtained through the Marshall

Plan in Europe. It is necessary for us to act carefully and patiently, and in

the early stages confine ourselves to securing very modest political concessions

in exchange for our economic aid (in some exceptional cases even without any

concessions in return). The way will then be open to us, but at a later stage,

to step up both our political price and our military demands...

In this case governmental subsidies and credits may take the form of military

appropriations. The hooked fish needs no bait. At the same time economic support

for those strata of the local business community which are ready to co-operate

with the US should be increased and the necessary conditions would be created

for businessmen of this type to be put in key economic positions and accordingly

for their political influence to be increased.

...the main emphasis in economic assistance as regards government subsidies and

credits should be on creating conditions in which eventually the economic

relations established by us would work for and make it natural for these

countries to join military pacts and alliances inspired by us. The essence of

this policy should be that the development of our economic relations with these

countries would ultimately allow us to take over key positions in the native

economy... By this means we can hope to divert the foreign policy of these

countries in a more desirable direction... should be given in particular... to native businessmen who are

struggling against their colonial status.

...if we do not support them we lose all hope of exercising a restraining

influence on them until it is too late. If this happens the desire for

independence may result in a nationalism so strong as to escape not only from

the control of the old colonial powers but also from our own control.

Extensive economic aid... should always be presented as an expression of a

sincere and disinterested desire on the part of the US to help and co-operate

with them."

(Letter from US Council on Foreign Relations member millionaire Nelson

Rockefeller to President Eisenhower, January 1956.)

"Now the Pacific has become an Anglo-Saxon lake, and our line of defence runs

through the chain of islands fringing the coast of Asia."

(US General MacArthur, Daily Mail March 2 1949.)

American bellicosity cannot use the Communist threat as its excuse. It didn't

start with the Cold War:

"For defensive purposes the sovereignty of the United States extends to the

whole continent."

(US Secretary of State Richard Olney, 1895.)

"Fate has written our policy for us; the trade of the world must and can be

ours. And we shall get it, as our Mother England has told us how... We will

cover the ocean with our merchant marine. We will build a navy to the measure of

our greatness... Our institutes will follow our trade. American law, American

order, American civilisation, and the American flag will plant themselves on

shores hitherto bloody and benighted, by those agencies of God henceforth made

beautiful and bright."

(US Senator Albert Beveridge, 1898.)

American bellicosity has always had the same aim and will continue to make


"In the future, we are more likely to be involved in Iraq-type things,

Panama-type things, Grenada-type things. Our position should be the protection

of the oilfields. Now whether Kuwait gets put back, that's subsidiary stuff."

(Chairman of US Armed Services Committee Les Aspin, 1990.)

"They know we own their country [Iraq]. We own their airspace. We dictate the

way they live and talk. And that's what's great about America right now. It's a

good thing, especially when there's a lot of oil out there we need."

(US Brigadier General William Looney, Washington Post, August 30 1999.)

"US aid is to "improve U.S.-Kazakh military cooperation while establishing a

U.S.-interoperable base along the oil-rich Caspian."

(U.S. State Department Report, 2002.)

"In oil's name, the United States is immersed in a new kind of colonialism, for

the resources that lie under foreign feet. They could care less about the

people. Therein lies an even greater tragedy."

(U.S. Dept. of State, Congressional Budget Justifications: Foreign Operations,

Fiscal Year 2003.)

It was not the Kremlin, but the Pentagon which in 1980 listed US troops in:

Europe: FRG 239,000, Great Britain 23,000, Italy 11,700, Spain 8,700, Turkey

4,900, Greece 3,300, Iceland 2,900, Nederlands 2,200, Belgium 2,000, Portugal

1,400, in ships of the 6th Fleet in Europe 25,000.

Asia: Japan 46,200, South Korea 39,000, Philippines 14,100, Guam 8,800,

Australia 700, Midway Island 500, US 7th Fleet 22,000.

Latin America: Panama Canal Zone 9,500, Puerto Rico 3,500, Guantanamo (Cuba)


Also: Bermuda 1,300, Diego Garcia 1,100, Canada 700, Saudi Arabia 400, other

countries such as Israel 1,800.

Also 196,000 US marines operate in the Atlantic, the Caribbean and the


Also in 1980, the US was planning new bases in Egypt, Israel, Oman, Somalia and


Communists have not built a network of military bases all over the world on

other nations' lands.

The USA has never been attacked on its own soil. The US now has some 2,500 bases

in 114 other countries around the world; many of which can deliver or have

nuclear weapons targeted on the USSR - all on foreign soil. A number of other

countries also have their own nuclear weapons targeted on the USSR.

Many former British bases in its colonies around the world were given over to

the US as a result of the Destroyers for Bases agreement in 1940 and other

agreements during the war.

"To use our strategic air power successfully we must have bases so located

around the world that we can reach any target we may be called upon to hit."

(US Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.)

Main US bases abroad include: West Germany 188, South Korea 40, Japan 32, UK 18,

Philippines 11, Italy 9, Turkey 7, Spain 6, Panama 6, Greece 4, Bermuda 3,

Greenland 2, Australia 2, Antigua 1, Belgium 1, Diego Garcia 1, Iceland 1,

Canada 1, Cuba (Guantanamo Bay) 1, Netherlands 1, Portugal 1. Total 336.

"The West could, with relative impunity launch atomic attacks on the Soviet

Union from a perimeter of 360 degrees, manned by more than 250 allied bases."

(General Norstad, US Supreme Commander of NATO, in The Times June 14 1957,)

"In the event of a major war, certain objectives were clear. The United States

should follow "what has been our one and only basic policy in the last thirty

years. This is that we prefer to fight our wars, if they be necessary, in

someone elses territory."

Through its farflung system of bases and the mobility of its forces, the United

States would shield itself..."

(US researcher M.S.Sherry, quoting from US declassified documents JCS 1496/2 and

JCS 1519, of September and October 1945, in his book "Preparing for the Next


By 1983, nineteen nations had nuclear weapons on their territory - eighteen of

these being capitalist; not counting China.

The USSR did not have one single nuclear weapon based on the soil of another


Contrary to suggestions even emanating from small sections of the peace movement

in Britain, no other Socialist country has nuclear weapons on its soil.

During the so-called Cuban "missile" crisis in 1962 the Soviet Union was forced

to repossess the nuclear weapons it had given to Cuba after the US Bay of Pigs

invasion of Cuba because of President Kennedy's threat to commence hostilities

against the USSR if this was not done.

Is there one law for the socialist Soviet Union and another for the capitalist

world of the United States of America?

"...adequate military strength deployed in key areas across the world [was

essential for maintaining B.M.] a progressive and integrated capitalist world


(Eugene Rostow, to US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 1981.)

Asked to explain US MX and Trident weapons:

"I think for the same purposes as in the past: To bully smaller nations. You

wouldn't need all this destructive power to bully a smaller nation if Russia did

not exist. But most of the smaller nations we've been opposed to are allied to

Russia. So, if we want to be able to say to Russia: we may have to batter or

even annihilate your small friends here, like North Vietnam, and you had better

not get into the fray - you'd better stand back - then we can't have too many

weapons in the balance."

(Daniel Ellsberg, in "Nuclear Armaments: an interview with Dr. Daniel Ellsberg."

Berkely 1980.)

Chapter 50


Nothing has changed as far as the West's leadership of the arms race is

concerned. Maxim Gorky wrote in 1932:

"The bourgeoisie rejected the Soviet Union's project for general disarmament,

and this alone is sufficient to justify us in saying that the capitalists are

socially dangerous people, that they are preparing for a new world war. They are

keeping the Soviet Union in a tense state of defence, compelling the working

class to spend a vast amount of precious time and material on the production of

weapons of defence against the capitalists, who are organising to attack the

Soviet Union and to turn this huge country into their colony, their market."

(Maxim Gorky, "On Whose Side, "Masters of Culture"? Reply to American

Correspondents." 1932.)

The British answer was to extend NATO even further; such as to help the

Portugese retain their domination of countries such as Angola, Mozambique and

Burkino Faso and prevent the spread of socialism there:

"NATO should broaden its maritime horizons... The South Atlantic should now be

included to give support and backing to our Portugese allies against the spread

of communism in Africa."

(Tory MP Geoffrey Rippon in the House of Commons; in "Round Table July 1970.)

Repeated Soviet proposals for a system of collective security in Europe were

rejected in the late 1930s. The result of that was the Second World War.

The manipulative power of our mass media is such that the majority of people in

Britain, those who do not put any effort into seeking alternative information

sources, largely because they are not informed of their existence, are denied

the chance to examine Soviet proposals for themselves. But then, we have a free

press; don't we?

If our "free press" is unforthcoming, then perhaps we should look at the

'unfree' press of the Soviet Union published in English in the UK in order to

find out what proposals are made or not made, voted for or against, and by whom:

"The Soviet Union solemnly declares that it will never use nuclear weapons

against states which renounce manufacture, acquisition and deployment of such

weapons on their territory."

(Leonid Brezhnev, quoted in Soviet Weekly, London, January 1982.)

The US ignored this declaration. So did the mass media.

The Soviet Union also declared at UN in 1982 that it would not be the first to

use nuclear weapons and proposed that the other member nations declare the same.

"We will never be the first to use nuclear weapons."

(USSR, June 18 1982.)

The US replied the same day:

"For us that is unacceptable."

(White House Press Secretary Larry Speakes, June 18 1982.)

This was adopted by the majority. The US voted against it. The British

government whispered it among themselves. The mass media largely ignored it.

Also in 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev stated that:

"War will not come from the Soviet Union, we will never start a war."

(Mikhail Gorbachev, 1985.)

The US and British governments and NATO uses the argument that the West must

have superiority in nuclear weapons because the Soviet Union has superiority in

conventional weapons. But the Soviet Union has also made a declaration not to be

the first to use nuclear or conventional weapons in Europe.

The US, Britain and NATO uses the argument that the West must have a nuclear

"deterrent" because of a Soviet superiority in tanks. But it is important to

understand that overall there is a rough parity between these kinds of weapons.

The Soviet Union has more tanks, but the West is superior in anti-tank weapons.

So there is more or less parity.

The Warsaw treaty organisation also proposed the following:

"The Warsaw Treaty member states address the member states of the North Atlantic

Treaty Organisation on the proposal to conclude a treaty on the mutual non-use

of force and on the maintenance of relations of peace..."

(From the Prague Declaration of the Warsaw Treaty Organisation, January 1983.)

The preposterous arguments put forward against unilateral disarmament completely

collapse when you consider the example of Canada:

"We have withdrawn from any nuclear role by Canada's armed forces. We are thus

not only the first country in the world with the capacity to produce nuclear

weapons, who choose not to do so; we are also the first nuclear armed country to

have chosen to divest itself of such weapons."

(Canadian Premier Trudeau, member of NATO, to UN Special Session on Disarmament.


The last nuclear weapon on Canadian soil was returned to the US in July 1984. Do

the Canadian people now tremble in fear of a Soviet nuclear attack? And does

anybody in Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain or Portugal lose any sleep at the

thought of finding the streets overrun by Soviet tanks one morning?

And what do the peoples of Grenada, Nicaragua, Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, El

Salvador, Dominican Republic, Korea, Lebanon, Libya, Cuba, Haiti, Honduras,

Guatemala, Mexico, Uruguay, Puerto Rico - all of whom have been invaded by US

forces - think of a Soviet threat?

The Soviet threat is a lie. The ridiculous assertion that the Soviet Union or

any other country in the world socialist community presents a military threat to

the capitalist world does not stand up to even two sentences of simple serious


It shows the sad state of our education that the mass media is able to convince

even one British half-wit that the day after we get rid of US nuclear weapons

from our soil will see Soviet tanks outside Tesco's or a SAM-7 has hit


In no other country, except perhaps the US, has the mass media such control over

public opinion.

"The hard truth is, as my recent visits in both the East and the West have made

clear to me, that many peoples of the world have less fear of the Red Army than

they fear that the United States may rashly precipitate atomic warfare against

which their population centres are utterly defenceless."

(John Foster Dulles, speech at the Annual Dinner of the Conference of Christians

and Jews, May 12 1952.)

"The main reason why a good part of the world does not love us is a double fear

that we will bring about World War III and economic disaster."

(New York Times April 11 1952.)

"There are those who wonder if we do not tend to trap ourselves by saying 'No'

automatically every time the Kremlin says 'Yes' without considering the


(New York Times May 11 1952.)

The main reason why the British media so controls the thoughts of the British

people is that they do not want them to realise that the Soviet Union wants

peace and that there is therefore no reason for the arms race forced on them by

the US and impoverishing the British people.

But it is the US dominated capitalist system that continually frustrates the

desire of ordinary people for peace and prosperity.

"Secretary of State Marshall accuses the Soviet Union of waging a propaganda

campaign for peace. This is a curious accusation. Don't we want peace?...

Twice this year Stalin tried for direct peace talks with Truman. Once Truman

tried for a direct peace talk with Stalin. On each occasion the military

diplomats and bankers in uniform moulding American foreign policy prevented a


We have the atom bomb. The Russians seem to have a weapon more terrifying: the

peace feeler."

(I.F.Stone, New York Star, Nov 15 1948.)

What is the Soviet viewpoint on the need for military force?:

"In terms of internal conditions, the Soviet Union needs no army. But since the

danger of war coming from the imperialist camp persists, and since complete and

general disarmament has not been achieved, the CPSU considers it necessary to

maintain the defensive power of the Soviet state and the combat preparedness of

its Armed Forces at a level ensuring the decisive and complete defeat of any

enemy who dares to encroach upon the Soviet land."

(From the Programme of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Moscow, 1961.)


One of the many obstacles the US puts in the way of disarmament is that of

verification of nuclear testing. But verification in the USSR is no barrier. US

testing personnel and devices have access to Soviet testing grounds. There is

complete contradiction in US claims anyway. The US claims to have satellite and

other intelligence facilities when it has claimed Soviet testing in the past.

The US cannot make these claims and then create non-existent problems of

verification unless its intelligence is faulty in the first place. If it is,

then the US cannot make such claims as in the past.

"We cannot afford, through any misguided and perilous idea of avoiding an

aggressive attitude, to permit the first blow to be struck against us. Our

government, under such conditions, should press the issue to a prompt political

decision, while making all preparations to strike the first blow if necessary."

(US Joint Chiefs of Staff directives 1496/2 and SWNCC 282.)

"It is still possible, I believe, to fight some wars using conventional forces

that don't involve nuclear weapons... but I think that if you advise potential

opponents in advance that you do not intend to cross certain lines, then you

have almost assured another Vietnam... Any time you get into a war the

possibility that you will use every weapon available has to be left open."

(US Secretary of Defence Weinberger, on being asked if he would have used

nuclear weapons in Vietnam, at his confirmation hearing, Jan 6 1981.)

Since its experience in Vietnam, the US does not believe in fighting a

conventional war, which it cannot sustain and is unlikely to win. It would

switch to nuclear very soon:

"High Military Officers in the Pentagon have been saying they cannot be expected

to fight a conventional war for longer than a few days if millions of Americans

are able to watch it night after night on their television screens. Public

revulsion would create intolerable pressures to scale back or end the fighting

altogether, as happened in Vietnam."

(Washington correspondent of the London Evening Standard, Nov 5 1986.)

Equally fallacious are the twin ideas of a "winnable" and a "limited" nuclear

war expressed by the Carter administration's Directive 59 of July 1980, which

confirmed the US "first Strike" and "limited" and "winnable" nuclear war


"I regard war as inevitable, and the side which goes into action with the full

force of atomic weapons will win. The future will belong to the side which dares

to wage preventive war. The tension between East and West will continue, and

will only be interrupted by a war. That is why the West, if it wants to beat

Russia, must launch a preventive war using all atomic weapons at its disposal."

(Former Nazi General Bodo Zimmerman, Sunday Express, London, Feb 28 1954.)

"I could see where you could have an exchange of tactical nuclear weapons

against corps in the field without bringing either one of the major powers to

pushing the button."

(Ronald Reagan, Oct 21 1981.)

"You have survivability of command and control, survivability of industrial

potential, protection of a percentage of your citizens, and you have a

capability that inflicts more damage on the opposition than it can inflict on

you. That's the way you can have a winner..."

(George Bush, in a Los Angeles Times interview in 1980, when asked to explain

his statement how a nuclear war could be won.)

The USSR does not believe in the ridiculous US concept of a "winnable",

"limited", and "containable" nuclear war. It would escalate immediately.

"The idea of a "limited" nuclear war is a myth... A nuclear conflict, even if it

starts in Europe, will turn into a general nuclear war within hours, and its

flames will spread to the US too."

(Gene Laroque, Director of the Centre for Defense Information, Washington, in an

interview with a Pravda correspondent, Sept 5 1983.)

"In reality, any war in central Europe would rapidly escalate into an all-out

nuclear war."

(British American Security Information Council.)

The US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency described the Soviet pledge not to be

the first to use nuclear weapons as "unacceptable" to the West "because neutron

weapons might be needed as a last resort".

Talking about the US's cowardly use of neutron weapons, former Pentagon nuclear

strategist Daniel Ellsberg, who was jailed for publishing the "Pentagon Papers",

stated that:

"This warhead is designed to be used advantageously only for first-use against

an adversary who does not have nuclear weapons with which to retaliate: the kind

of opponents we have actually fought in the last thirty years - the Koreans, the

Chinese (before they exploded an atom bomb) and the Indochinese. In the future,

occasions might arise again in Korea or in the Middle East."

(Former US nuclear strategist Daniel Ellsberg.)

"The simple fact of the matter is that... it is possible that with nuclear

weapons there can be some use of them... in connection with what is up to that

time a war solely within a European theatre."

(US Defence Secretary Casper Weinberger, Oct 27 1981.)

"It would be advantageous to use tactical nuclear weapons and chemical weapons

at an early stage.

Options at this stage should include deep nuclear strikes."

(From US Army Training Manual "Airland Battle 86".)

"I made up my mind that the best way to save the lives of those young men - and

those of the Japanese soldiers - was to drop those bombs [on Hiroshima and

Nagasaki] and end the war. I did it. And I would say to you I would do it again

if I had to."

(US President Truman, May 10 1950.)

"He would not hesitate to use the atom bomb if it were necessary for the welfare

of the United States."

(The Times April 8 1949.)

"General Eisenhower said that he was concerned at the apparently growing opinion

that the United States should never drop the atom bomb first. 'To my mind the

use of the atom bomb would be on this basis: Does it advantage me or does it

not, when I get into a war? If I thought the net gain was on my side, I would

use it instantly.'"

(US Senate Foreign Affairs and Armed Services Joint Committee, March 11 1951.

Daily Telegraph March 13 1951.)

"I would request the use of theatre nuclear weapons at a time when I could not

accomplish my mission conventionally."

(NATO Supreme Commander in Europe, US General Rogers, two days after the Soviet

Union's "no first use" pledge at the UN.)

"They (the Soviets) can expect to lose many times over the twenty million they

lost in World War two they keep talking about in every speech. They have to

think that the number of losses will be multiplied many times over and not that

we plan just to take out missile silos in Siberia."

(US Senator Glen, during Senate hearings on nuclear war strategy.)

Similar contempt for people and disdain for human lives was also expressed in

the remark that:

"You can have a limited nuclear war. The USA has already fought such a war, in

Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Japanese not only lived through it but are


(Eugene Rostow, director of US Arms Control and Development Agency.)

As the secret "Pentagon Papers" published in 1971 show, the US

military-political leadership seriously considered a "pre-emptive" nuclear

strike in Vietnam in order to "hasten the end of the war".

Henry Kissinger's memoirs also reveal that Denis Healey as a member of NATO's

Nuclear Planning Group also argued for early use of nuclear weapons long before

Ronald Reagan was anywhere near the White House or Mrs. Thatcher near


Who profits from peace?

As we have seen; in the socialist countries nobody profits from an arms race;

everybody suffers, everybody loses; while everybody gains from peace and


In the West however, it is quite the opposite. Although "defence" costs the

average British family some £24 a week (1985 figures); not everybody loses:

"France and England must have a large enough credit in the United States to

prevent the collapse of world trade... Perhaps our going to war is the only way

in which our present prominent trade position can be maintained and a panic


(Walter H Page, US Ambassador in London, 1917.)

"A 'peace scare' seized the New York Stock Exchange last night, causing

considerable selling. Prices declined, especially in steel securities and the

so-called 'war securities'."

(News Chronicle March 16 1940.)

"Only an improved international situation can dim the business outlook."

(Journal of Commerce March 23 1948.)

"In a lot of ways, World War Two was not hell for the US... the elimination of

unemployment, the general increase in incomes, the boom in business..."

(From "Economic Consequences of a Third World War." in Business Week, NY, No.

973, April 24 1948.)

"Peace if it really arrived would upset things. At present arms expenditure and

aid to other countries are bolstering business."

(US News and World Report Dec 31 1948.)

"Just when people thought the boom might be tapering off, the war in Korea set

off a new boom. It's really a made-to-order situation to keep business at a high


(US News and World Report, summer 1950.)

"The possibility of peace talks on Korea interrupted Wall Street's recovery

today and caused a fair sized set back."

(The Times March 26 1951.)

"The possibility of a temporary truce haunts United States policy planners."

(Business Week April 12 1951.)

"The foreigh policies of this country, Britain and France have now entered a

truly agonising crisis. The cause is the so-called peace offensive now being

carried on by the masters of the Kremlin."

(Washington Post April 16 1951.)

"Sudden peace could work havoc with business."

(New York Times May 20 1951.)

"The coincidence between the boom and the conclusion of the Paris Treaties, and

the obvious connection between the rise in share values... and France's

agreement to the rearmament of West Germany... the buyers expect that arms

contracts... will lead to an increase in profits and thus to higher dividends.

The stock exchange thus counts in advance on an arms boom and regards this

development as guaranteed."

(Frankfurter Rundschau, Jan 3 1955.)

"Peace would pull the props from beneath the entire economic structure."

(US News and World Report.)

And there was a boom on the Tokyo stock exchange when the Korean war started.

Completely ignoring the USSR's "no first use" pledge at the UN, Ronald Reagan

spoke of his own "contribution to peace" and makes the assertion that "we were

never the aggressors".

Then why does he force Europe to accept such NATO concepts as "first strike",

"demonstration shots", "preventive strikes", and "launch on warning"?

Reagan's "contributions to peace include denying visas to what he called "left

wing" delegates to UN disarmament talks; including Romesh Chandra, chairman of

the World Peace Council at Helsinki. The US also refused visas to over 300

people to attend the UN Special Session on Disarmament in 1982.

More US "contributions to peace" include:

UN resolutions:

Resolution:US voting.

Ruling out direct or indirect use of force against any country in Central

America or Caribbean by any member state of the UN:VETOED.

Keep UN Security Council informed about events in Central America and


Halt production and eliminate stockpiling of nuclear weapons:AGAINST.

Against development of nuclear weapons in states where they are not sited at


Prohibition of neutron weapons:AGAINST.

Reaching agreement on total banning of nuclear tests:AGAINST.

Resume Soviet-US talks on chemical warfare:AGAINST.

Calling on states to refrain from production of binary and other chemical

weapons and not deploying such in other countries:AGAINST.

On banning cooperation with South Africa and Israel in nuclear weapons


Condemning Israel's attack on Iraq's nuclear research installations:AGAINST.

In voting against virtually every recent UN disarmament proposal, the British

Government has consistently frustrated the peaceful plans and development of

every region of the world:

Proposal:Sponsor For Against Abstain UK vote.

Additional Protocol 1 of the Treaty of the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in

Latin America: Mexico135 0 9 FOR.

Cessation of all test explosions of nuclear weapons:Mexico 119 2 26 AGAINST.

Urgent need for comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty:Australia and New Zealand

117 0 29 ABSTAIN.

Establishment of a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone in the region of the Middle East:

Egypt Consensus FOR.

Establishment of a nuclear weapon-free zone in South Asia: Pakistan 94 3 46


Conclusion of an international convention on the strengthening of the security

of non-nuclear states against the use or threat of nuclear weapons: Bulgaria 108

17 15 AGAINST.

Prevention of an arms race in outer space: Sri Lanka/Egypt 147 1 1 ABSTAIN.

Immediate cessation and prohibition of nuclear weapons tests: USSR 118 4 24


Freeze on nuclear weapons: India 124 15 7 AGAINST.

Nuclear arms freeze: Mexico and Sweden 124 13 8 AGAINST.

Condemnation of nuclear war:USSR 95 19 30 AGAINST.

Nuclear weapon freeze: USSR 108 18 20 AGAINST.

Implementation of the declaration on the denuclearisation of Africa: Sierra

Leone 142 0 6 ABSTAIN.

(Hansard July 30 1984.)

At the UN, of 157 member states, only one country voted against a resolution

calling on nations to refrain from production of chemical weapons and deployment

in states which do not have them at present. That same country possesses around

300,000 tons of such weapons and is producing new types tested on Afghanistan

and El Salvador. That country was the US.

2,000 tons of chemical weapons is at present stored in West Germany for

deployment in Britain and Italy.

What is it for? How would it be used?

"This would be done largely by dropping waste materials. The zone would be such

that no life would survive there. It could remain as a barrier if necessary for


(The Daily Mail, Dec 18 1954, speaking of a planned creation of a radio-active

zone at the beginning of a war in West Germany.)

"Under such circumstances biological weapons are a weapon which can considerably

increase the effects of war on the civilian population. It is thus conceivable

that large parts of the population of an industrial area should be infected with

fatal or crippling biological material... Perhaps the germ of pest, typhus or

cholera... There are also many types of material designed to infect animals or

effect vegetation..."

(US General William M. Creasy, chief of the Department of Biological and

Chemical Warfare of the United States Army, in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung,

Dec 24 1954.)

The paper goes on to describe the effects of radiation, regarding Hiroshima:

" the past year out of a total of 30,000 births more than 8,500 were not

normal, nearly 4,500 new born babies died immediately after birth, 500 were born

dead and over 3,600 were monsters or idiots. Some had no eyes or no brain,

others had deformed heads."

(Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Dec 24 1954.)

What is this stockpile of chemical, biological and radiation weapons really for?

The unemployed? Communists? Social upheaval? Chemical warfare is no good against

modern military forces who are protected against chemical warfare. It could only

be of use against civilians. It is therefore most suitable in times of social

unrest - for class warfare.

The perfect capitalist weapon is the Neutron bomb. It destroys human life but

leaves capital intact. The effects of financing it has the opposite effect on

Third World economies: it leaves people alive but destroys their wealth.

At the UN in 1963, the Soviet Union tabled a Draft Convention banning

development, production and use of chemical and biological warfare. The US and a

number of other capitalist countries refused even to discuss the matter.

In 1975 the USSR, USA and Britain stated to the UN Disarmament Committee that

they had no biological weapon stocks. In 1980 attempts were made to accuse the

Soviet Union of violating this. The Soviet Union again formally stated that it

does not possess any bacteriological agents, toxins, weapons, equipment or means

of delivering such weapons as named in the Convention.

The US makes such fabrications in order to justify its own production and

stockpiling of such weapons.

US President Carter assigned $2.47 billion for a new chemical warfare programme.

Later $4 billion was allocated.

The US is now armed with aircraft containers with agents for bubonic plague,

anthrax and encephalitis. US stocks of nerve gas run to tens of thousands of


The US did not ratify the 1925 Geneva Gas Protocol until 1975.

"The US is not a party to any treaty now in force, that prohibits or restricts

the use in warfare of toxic or non-toxic gases, or of bacteriological warfare."

(From: US Army Field Manual "The Law of Land Warfare.")

The US broke off talks on production of chemical weapons in 1980.

On a UN Emergency Session on Palestine resolution ending Israeli aggression, 129

countries voted in favour; two voted against: the US and Israel.

Fed up with having to make all these tiresome "contributions to peace", Ronald

Reagan said at the UN in June 1982:

"We need deeds not words."

(Ronald Reagan, at UN June 1982.)

As we shall see in a later chapter; Reagan's "deeds not words" include:

Supplying El Salvador's junta with chemical weapons, cluster and phosphorus


Supplying Pakistan with similar weapons for use by Afghan "rebels".

Supplying Thailand with chemical shells for use against Kampuchea.

Supplying Pakistan with facilities for spreading viruses via mosquitos into


Spreading biological diseases among the crops, animals, and people of Cuba.

Finally; the Soviet proposals to rid the world of nuclear weapons by the end of

the century have been largely ignored by the capitalist world and its media;

which invariably dismisses Soviet disarmament proposals as "propaganda".

"If all that we are doing is indeed viewed as mere propaganda, why not respond

to it according to the principle of "an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a

tooth"? We have stopped nuclear explosions. Then you Americans could take

revenge by doing likewise. You could deal us yet another propaganda blow, say,

by suspending the development of one of your new strategic missiles. And we

would respond with the same kind of "propaganda". And so on and so forth. Would

anyone be harmed by competition in such "propaganda"?"

(Mikhail Gorbachev, in an interview with Time Magazine, Sept 1985.)

But the Soviet Union is here to stay; and cannot be ignored:

"Whoever desires peace and seeks to enter into businesslike relations with us

can always count on our support. But those who might attempt to attack our

country... will meet with a crushing defeat. The gentlemen of the bourgeoisie

will only have themselves to blame if some governments dear to them which still

by the grace of God firmly hold the reigns of government will be missing on the

day after such a war."

(XVIIth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 1934.)

Adolf Hitler found this out ten years later. And so did the British Municheers

and appeasers. And it is no less true today.

Unfortunately, American Presidents only seem to sober up in old age:

"When we get to the point, as we one day will, that both sides know that in any

outbreak of general hostilities, regardless of the element of surprise,

destruction will be both reciprocal and complete, possibly we will have sense

enough to meet at the conference table with the understanding that the era has

ended and the human race mush conform its actions to this truth or die."

(Eisenhower, April 1956, in Washington post Sept 1983.)

"Under certain circumstances likely to develop in Europe, we may be forced to

make first use of nuclear weapons. We will never be able to put into effect our

joint plans in this vital area unless quite exceptional efforts are made to

check European tendencies towards neutralism, pacifism and unilateralism. To

achieve this it is necessary, I feel, to emphasise the theme that the nuclear

weapons balance, particularly in the European theatre, has changed sharply in

favour of the East.

(Supreme Commander of NATO Alexander Haig, in a letter to ex Dutch Nazi

Secretary of NATO Joseph Lunz on the eve of his retirement, June 1979.)

In the Pentagon's military propaganda booklet "Soviet Military Power," from

which most defence or peace 'experts' take most of their material, Soviet

defence spending is completely falsifies by translating Soviet GNP in roubles

into dollars and determining how much it would cost to maintain the Soviet armed

forces at US dollar rates. This mythical Soviet defence budget as a percentage

of its GNP is then compared with the US defence budget and given as a reason to

extend it.

"A ruble estimate is calculated and the figure is made public, but no

dollar-ruble average is presebted. Press releases, hearings and media coverage

ignore it and concentrate on the dollar comparison. This exaggerates Soviet

military spending relative to America's - as the CIA has often admitted.

But a proper accounting and interpretation of both sides' military outlays

indicates that the West outspent the Eastern bolc by $740 billion from 1971

through 1980. Actually Mr. Reagan was off by more than $1, trillion."

(US Professor of Economics and Fellow at the Russian Research Centre at Harvard

University Franklyn Holzman, in International Herald Tribune, March 8 1986.)

"In March, 1978, the World Bank was asked to differentiate between the two

economic systems. The answer they gave was: 'The Russian GNP is estimated at

41-7 per cent of the United States GNP, and the combined GNPs of Czechoslovakia,

Hungary, Poland and East Germany are about 55 per cent of the GNP of West

Germany.' This paints a very different picture indeed of the comparative arms

spending of the two blocs."

(Hansard Parliamentary Record, March 14 1978.)

"Let us take first the proposition that Soviet military expenditure exceeds that

of the United States... The Soviet Union itself produces for its own military

expenditure one single figure, 17-2 thousand million roubles with no further

explanation. There is no exchange rate within the bounds of possibility which

could convert this into a figure which exceeds the US figure for military

expenditure of 105 thousand million dollars at current prices...

There is not much doubt that if it were possible to value US military

expenditure at Soviet prices, which is the other half of a proper compatison

between the two countries, then US military expenditure valued in roubles would

exceed that of the Soviet Union... when the is made between any other forms of

expenditure in the two countries - health expenditure, education expenditure, or

the national product as a whole - the difference between the dollar based and

rouble based estimates is very big."

(SIPRI Yearbook 1979.)

"The CIA calculates that Soviet and American military expenditure are about

equal. In this computation they recognise the irrelevance of Soviet statistics:

the agency's analysts calculate how much it would cost the United States, at

current American prices, to acquire the weapons and manpower of the USSR... That

seems to be a sensible way to compare our two countries' military spending..."

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